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  • Malaria in China, 2011-2015: an observational study.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Malaria in China, 2011-2015: an observational study. Bull World Health Organ. 2017 Aug 01;95(8):564-573 Authors: Lai S, Li Z, Wardrop NA, Sun J, Head MG, Huang Z, Zhou S, Yu J, Zhang Z, Zhou SS, Xia Z, Wang R, Zheng B, Ruan Y, Zhang L, Zhou XN, Tatem AJ, Yu H Abstract OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the trends and burden of malaria in China and the costs of interventions for 2011-2015. METHODS: We analysed the spatiotemporal and demographic features of locally transmitted and imported malaria cases using disaggregated surveillance data on malaria from 2011 to 2015, covering the range of dominant malaria vectors in China. The total and mean costs for malaria elimination were calculated by funding sources, interventions and population at risk. FINDINGS: A total of 17 745 malaria cases, including 123 deaths (0.7%), were reported in mainland China, with 15 840 (89%) being imported cases, mainly from Africa and south-east Asia. Almost all counties of China (2855/2858) had achieved their elimination goals by 2015, and locally transmitted cases dropped from 1469 cases in 2011 to 43 cases in 2015, mainly occurring in the regions bordering Myanmar where Anopheles minimus and An. dirus are the dominant vector species. A total of United States dollars (US$) 134.6 million was spent in efforts to eliminate malaria during 2011-2015, with US$ 57.2 million (43%) from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and US$ 77.3 million (57%) from the Chinese central government. The mean annual investment (US$ 27 million) per person at risk (574 million) was US$ 0.05 (standard deviation: 0.03). CONCLUSION: The locally transmitted malaria burden in China has decreased. The key challenge is to address the remaining local transmission, as well as to reduce imported cases from Africa and south-east Asia. Continued efforts and appropriate levels of investment are needed in the ...

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  • West Nile virus outbreak in Israel in 2015: phylogenetic and geographic characterization in humans and mosquitoes.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles West Nile virus outbreak in Israel in 2015: phylogenetic and geographic characterization in humans and mosquitoes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Dec;23(12):986-993 Authors: Lustig Y, Kaufman Z, Mannasse B, Koren R, Katz-Likvornik S, Orshan L, Glatman-Freedman A, Mendelson E Abstract OBJECTIVES: West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and was responsible for several outbreaks in the past 16 years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of WNV acute infections from an outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Israel and report the molecular and geographic characterization of WNV isolates from human cases and mosquito pools obtained during this outbreak. METHODS: Using a geographical layer comprising 51 continuous areas of Israel, the number of WNV infection cases per 100 000 people in each area and the locations of WNV-infected mosquitoes in 2015 were analysed. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses followed by geographic localization were performed on 13 WNV human isolates and 19 WNV-infected mosquito pools. RESULTS: Substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of acute WNV in patients in Israel was found and an overall correlation with WNV-infected mosquitoes. All human patients sequenced were infected only with the Mediterranean subtype of WNV Lineage 1 and resided primarily in the coastal regions in central Israel. In contrast, mosquitoes were infected with both the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of WNV lineage 1; however, only the Mediterranean subtype was found in mosquitoes from the coastal region in central Israel. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate differential geographic dispersion in Israel of the two WNV subtypes and may also point to a differential pattern of human infections. As a geographical bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa, analysis of WNV circulation in humans and mosquitoes in Israel provides ...

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  • Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 10;23(10):1737-1739 Authors: Cunha MS, Cruz NVG, Schnellrath LC, Medaglia MLG, Casotto ME, Albano RM, Costa LJ, Damaso CR Abstract We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T. PMID: 28930027 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):578-584 Authors: Goller KV, Dill V, Madi M, Martin P, Van der Stede Y, Vandenberge V, Haas B, Van Borm S, Koenen F, Kasanga CJ, Ndusilo N, Beer M, Liu L, Mioulet V, Armson B, King DP, Fowler VL Abstract Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Advances in molecular technologies allow implementation of modern and reliable techniques for quick and simple pathogen detection either in basic laboratories or even at the pen-side. Here, we report on a study to evaluate a fully automated cartridge-based real-time RT-PCR diagnostic system (Enigma MiniLab® ) for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The modular system integrates both nucleic acid extraction and downstream real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The analytical sensitivity of this assay was determined using serially diluted culture grown FMDV, and the performance of the assay was evaluated using a selected range of FMDV positive and negative clinical samples of bovine, porcine and ovine origin. The robustness of the assay was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test and by deployment into an African laboratory. It was demonstrated that the system is easy to use and can detect FMDV with high sensitivity and specificity, roughly on par with standard laboratory ...

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  • Isolation and evolutionary analysis of Australasian topotype of bluetongue virus serotype 4 from India.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Isolation and evolutionary analysis of Australasian topotype of bluetongue virus serotype 4 from India. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):547-556 Authors: Reddy YV, Susmitha B, Patil S, Krishnajyothi Y, Putty K, Ramakrishna KV, Sunitha G, Devi BV, Kavitha K, Deepthi B, Krovvidi S, Reddy YN, Reddy GH, Singh KP, Maan NS, Hemadri D, Maan S, Mertens PP, Hegde NR, Rao PP Abstract Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-borne disease caused by several serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). Similar to other insect-borne viral diseases, distribution of BT is limited to distribution of Culicoides species competent to transmit BTV. In the tropics, vector activity is almost year long, and hence, the disease is endemic, with the circulation of several serotypes of BTV, whereas in temperate areas, seasonal incursions of a limited number of serotypes of BTV from neighbouring tropical areas are observed. Although BTV is endemic in all the three major tropical regions (parts of Africa, America and Asia) of the world, the distribution of serotypes is not alike. Apart from serological diversity, geography-based diversity of BTV genome has been observed, and this is the basis for proposal of topotypes. However, evolution of these topotypes is not well understood. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of several BTV-4 isolates from India. These isolates are distinct from BTV-4 isolates from other geographical regions. Analysis of available BTV seg-2 sequences indicated that the Australasian BTV-4 diverged from African viruses around 3,500 years ago, whereas the American viruses diverged relatively recently (1,684 CE). Unlike Australasia and America, BTV-4 strains of the Mediterranean area evolved through several independent incursions. We speculate that independent evolution of BTV in different geographical areas over long periods of time might have led to the diversity observed in the current virus ...

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  • Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014-2015.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 10;23(10):1699-1702 Authors: Mannasse B, Mendelson E, Orshan L, Mor O, Shalom U, Yeger T, Lustig Y Abstract We identified Usutu virus (USUV) RNA in 6 pools of mosquitoes trapped in northern Israel during 2014-2015. These Israeli strains were most similar to strains identified in Senegal and Germany, which further elucidates common ancestry and evolutionary dynamics of USUV. Our findings suggest that human infection with USUV might occur in Israel. PMID: 28930008 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Molecular survey and genetic characterization of Anaplasma centrale, A. marginale and A. bovis in cattle from Algeria.

    Posted 2018-05-22 10:01:01 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Molecular survey and genetic characterization of Anaplasma centrale, A. marginale and A. bovis in cattle from Algeria. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):456-464 Authors: Rjeibi MR, Ayadi O, Rekik M, Gharbi M Abstract Bovine anaplasmosis could be caused by several Anaplasma species. The causative agents are transmitted by ticks and haematophagous arthropods with a high impact on both human and animal health. This study was conducted to estimate the infection rate and to characterize Anaplasma spp. in cattle from Algeria. A molecular survey was performed in Setif district (Northeast Algeria) where a total number of 180 cattle blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Positive samples were genetically characterized based on the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes. PCRs revealed that the infection rates of Anaplasma spp., Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma bovis were 42.2%; 39.4%; 11.1% and 4.4%, respectively. All tested animals were negative for A. phagocytophilum. Co-infection occurred in 10% (18/180) of the tested animals, and the most common co-infection pattern was an association between A. centrale and A. marginale (5.5%). Five cattle (2.7%) were co-infected by the three Anaplasma species. Holstein animals (58.1%) were more infected by A. centrale than the other breeds (p = .01). The molecular prevalence of A. centrale was significantly higher in males (54.2%) than in females (34.1%) (p = .001). A. marginale msp4 genetic analysis indicated a high sequence diversity of Algerian strains, suggesting the importation of live cattle from different origins. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of A. bovis and A. centrale revealed a low degree of genetic diversity. Our study suggests that different species of Anaplasma are simultaneously present in the Algerian cattle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study and ...

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