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  • 05 Oct 2017
    INDEPENDENCE DAY SPEECH OF PRIME MINISTER OF NIGERIA, ALHAJI (SIR) ABUBAKAR TAFAWA-BALEWA — OCTOBER 1, 1960. Today is Independence Day. The first of October 1960 is a date to which for two years, Nigeria has been eagerly looking forward. At last, our great day has arrived, and Nigeria is now indeed an independent Sovereign nation. Words cannot adequately express my joy and pride at being the Nigerian citizen privileged to accept from Her Royal Highness these Constitutional Instruments which are the symbols of Nigeria’s Independence. It is a unique privilege which I shall remember forever, and it gives me strength and courage as I dedicate my life to the service of our country. This is a wonderful day, and it is all the more wonderful because we have awaited it with increasing impatience, compelled to watch one country after another overtaking us on the road when we had so nearly reached our goal. But now, we have acquired our rightful status, and I feel sure that history will show that the building of our nation proceeded at the wisest pace: it has been thorough, and Nigeria now stands well-built upon firm foundations. Today’s ceremony marks the culmination of a process which began fifteen years ago and has now reached a happy and successful conclusion. It is with justifiable pride that we claim the achievement of our Independence to be unparalleled in the annals of history. Each step of our constitutional advance has been purposefully and peacefully planned with full and open consultation, not only between representatives of all the various interests in Nigeria but in harmonious cooperation with the administering power which has today relinquished its authority. At the time when our constitutional development entered upon its final phase, the emphasis was largely upon self-government: We, the elected representatives of the people of Nigeria, concentrated on proving that we were fully capable of managing our own affairs both internally and as a nation. However, we were not to be allowed the selfish luxury of focusing our interest on our own homes. In these days of rapid communications, we cannot live in isolation, apart from the rest of the world, even if we wished to do so. All too soon it has become evident that for us, independence implies a great deal more than self-government. This great country, which has now emerged without bitterness or bloodshed, finds that she must at once be ready to deal with grave international issues. This fact has of recent months been unhappily emphasised by the startling events which have occurred in this continent. I shall not belabour the point but it would be unrealistic not to draw attention first to the awe-inspiring task confronting us at the very start of our nationhood. When this day in October 1960 was chosen for our Independence, it seemed that we were destined to move with quiet dignity to our place on the world stage. Recent events have changed the scene beyond recognition, so that we find ourselves today being tested to the utmost. We are called upon immediately to show that our claims to responsible government are well-founded, and having been accepted as an independent state, we must at once play an active part in maintaining the peace of the world and in preserving civilisation. I promise you, we shall not fall for want of determination. And we come to this task better-equipped than many. For this, I pay tribute to the manner in which successive British governments have gradually transferred the burden of responsibility to our shoulders. The assistance and unfailing encouragement which we received from each Secretary of State for the Colonies and their intense personal interest in our development has immeasurably lightened that burden. All our friends in the Colonial Office must today be proud of their handiwork and in the knowledge that they have helped to lay the foundations of a lasting friendship between our two nations. I have indeed every confidence that, based on the happy experience of a successful partnership, our future relations with the United Kingdom will be more cordial than ever, bound together, as we shall be in the Commonwealth, by a common allegiance to Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, whom today we proudly acclaim as Queen of Nigeria and Head of the Commonwealth. Time will not permit the individual mention of all those friends, many of them Nigerians, whose selfless labours have contributed to our Independence. Some have not lived to see the fulfilment of their hopes – on them be peace – but nevertheless they are remembered here, and the names of buildings and streets and roads and bridges throughout the country recall to our minds their achievements, some of them on a national scale. Others confined, perhaps, to a small area in one Division, are more humble but of equal value in the sum-total. Today, we have with us representatives of those who have made Nigeria: Representatives of the Regional Governments, of former Central Governments, of the Missionary Societies, and of the Banking and Commercial enterprises, and members, both past and present, of the Public Service. We welcome you, and we rejoice that you have been able to come and share in our celebrations. We wish that it could have been possible for all of those whom you represent to be here today. Many, I know, will be disappointed to be absent, but if they are listening to me now, I say to them: '‘Thank you on behalf of my countrymen. Thank you for your devoted service which helped to build up Nigeria into a nation. Today, we are reaping the harvest which you sowed, and the quality of the harvest is equalled only by our gratitude to you. May God bless you all. This is an occasion when our hearts are filled with conflicting emotions: we are, indeed, proud to have achieved our independence, and proud that our efforts should have contributed to this happy event. But do not mistake our pride for arrogance. It is tempered by feelings of sincere gratitude to all who have shored in the task of developing Nigeria politically, socially and economically.'' We are grateful to the British officers whom we have known, first as masters, and then as leaders, and finally as partners, but always as friends. And there have been countless missionaries who have laboured unceasingly in the cause of education and to whom we owe many of our medical services. We are grateful also to those who have brought modern methods of banking and of commerce, and new industries. I wish to pay tribute to all of these people and to declare our everlasting admiration of their devotion to duty. And finally, I must express our gratitude to Her Royal Highness, the Princess Alexandra for personally bringing to us these symbols of our freedom and especially for delivering the gracious message from Her Majesty, The Queen. And so, with the words ‘God Save Our Queen’, I open a new chapter in the history of Nigeria and of the Commonwealth, and indeed, of the world. .....being full text speech of Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa-Balewa at the Independence Square Lagos, now Tafawa-Balewa Square, on 1st October, 1960. 
    18 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  • INDEPENDENCE DAY SPEECH OF PRIME MINISTER OF NIGERIA, ALHAJI (SIR) ABUBAKAR TAFAWA-BALEWA — OCTOBER 1, 1960. Today is Independence Day. The first of October 1960 is a date to which for two years, Nigeria has been eagerly looking forward. At last, our great day has arrived, and Nigeria is now indeed an independent Sovereign nation. Words cannot adequately express my joy and pride at being the Nigerian citizen privileged to accept from Her Royal Highness these Constitutional Instruments which are the symbols of Nigeria’s Independence. It is a unique privilege which I shall remember forever, and it gives me strength and courage as I dedicate my life to the service of our country. This is a wonderful day, and it is all the more wonderful because we have awaited it with increasing impatience, compelled to watch one country after another overtaking us on the road when we had so nearly reached our goal. But now, we have acquired our rightful status, and I feel sure that history will show that the building of our nation proceeded at the wisest pace: it has been thorough, and Nigeria now stands well-built upon firm foundations. Today’s ceremony marks the culmination of a process which began fifteen years ago and has now reached a happy and successful conclusion. It is with justifiable pride that we claim the achievement of our Independence to be unparalleled in the annals of history. Each step of our constitutional advance has been purposefully and peacefully planned with full and open consultation, not only between representatives of all the various interests in Nigeria but in harmonious cooperation with the administering power which has today relinquished its authority. At the time when our constitutional development entered upon its final phase, the emphasis was largely upon self-government: We, the elected representatives of the people of Nigeria, concentrated on proving that we were fully capable of managing our own affairs both internally and as a nation. However, we were not to be allowed the selfish luxury of focusing our interest on our own homes. In these days of rapid communications, we cannot live in isolation, apart from the rest of the world, even if we wished to do so. All too soon it has become evident that for us, independence implies a great deal more than self-government. This great country, which has now emerged without bitterness or bloodshed, finds that she must at once be ready to deal with grave international issues. This fact has of recent months been unhappily emphasised by the startling events which have occurred in this continent. I shall not belabour the point but it would be unrealistic not to draw attention first to the awe-inspiring task confronting us at the very start of our nationhood. When this day in October 1960 was chosen for our Independence, it seemed that we were destined to move with quiet dignity to our place on the world stage. Recent events have changed the scene beyond recognition, so that we find ourselves today being tested to the utmost. We are called upon immediately to show that our claims to responsible government are well-founded, and having been accepted as an independent state, we must at once play an active part in maintaining the peace of the world and in preserving civilisation. I promise you, we shall not fall for want of determination. And we come to this task better-equipped than many. For this, I pay tribute to the manner in which successive British governments have gradually transferred the burden of responsibility to our shoulders. The assistance and unfailing encouragement which we received from each Secretary of State for the Colonies and their intense personal interest in our development has immeasurably lightened that burden. All our friends in the Colonial Office must today be proud of their handiwork and in the knowledge that they have helped to lay the foundations of a lasting friendship between our two nations. I have indeed every confidence that, based on the happy experience of a successful partnership, our future relations with the United Kingdom will be more cordial than ever, bound together, as we shall be in the Commonwealth, by a common allegiance to Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, whom today we proudly acclaim as Queen of Nigeria and Head of the Commonwealth. Time will not permit the individual mention of all those friends, many of them Nigerians, whose selfless labours have contributed to our Independence. Some have not lived to see the fulfilment of their hopes – on them be peace – but nevertheless they are remembered here, and the names of buildings and streets and roads and bridges throughout the country recall to our minds their achievements, some of them on a national scale. Others confined, perhaps, to a small area in one Division, are more humble but of equal value in the sum-total. Today, we have with us representatives of those who have made Nigeria: Representatives of the Regional Governments, of former Central Governments, of the Missionary Societies, and of the Banking and Commercial enterprises, and members, both past and present, of the Public Service. We welcome you, and we rejoice that you have been able to come and share in our celebrations. We wish that it could have been possible for all of those whom you represent to be here today. Many, I know, will be disappointed to be absent, but if they are listening to me now, I say to them: '‘Thank you on behalf of my countrymen. Thank you for your devoted service which helped to build up Nigeria into a nation. Today, we are reaping the harvest which you sowed, and the quality of the harvest is equalled only by our gratitude to you. May God bless you all. This is an occasion when our hearts are filled with conflicting emotions: we are, indeed, proud to have achieved our independence, and proud that our efforts should have contributed to this happy event. But do not mistake our pride for arrogance. It is tempered by feelings of sincere gratitude to all who have shored in the task of developing Nigeria politically, socially and economically.'' We are grateful to the British officers whom we have known, first as masters, and then as leaders, and finally as partners, but always as friends. And there have been countless missionaries who have laboured unceasingly in the cause of education and to whom we owe many of our medical services. We are grateful also to those who have brought modern methods of banking and of commerce, and new industries. I wish to pay tribute to all of these people and to declare our everlasting admiration of their devotion to duty. And finally, I must express our gratitude to Her Royal Highness, the Princess Alexandra for personally bringing to us these symbols of our freedom and especially for delivering the gracious message from Her Majesty, The Queen. And so, with the words ‘God Save Our Queen’, I open a new chapter in the history of Nigeria and of the Commonwealth, and indeed, of the world. .....being full text speech of Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa-Balewa at the Independence Square Lagos, now Tafawa-Balewa Square, on 1st October, 1960. 
    Oct 05, 2017 18
  • 01 Oct 2017
    "Heeferße Njabtii Ardungal" - "The Unbelievers Snatched the Leadership." This poem is believed to have been written by Malam Hammadu Mo Bindi, a dis- ciple of Malam Muhammad Tukur 6ii Binta. Malam Tukur wrote many poems, and one of the most popular among them is a voluminous work titled Busra 'u9 containing well over one thousand verses of dual -stanza lines. The eighteen dual -stanza lines included here are believed to be part of a longer poem contain- ing forty dual-stanza lines, which dates from about 1915. The theme of these lines focuses on memories of the good governance of the Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria, which was destroyed by the British) HEEFERBE NJABTII ARDUNGAL THE UNBELIEVERS SNATCHED LEADERSHIP 1.1 "Be tawße ko sheehu me^en mujaddadi we^iti, 1 .2 "Be wirgi 6e mbar yonki 6e asni 6e sankiti.      They met what our sheikh,     the revivalist, had founded, They destroyed it; they killed souls and caused loss of property. 2. 1 "Be wirgoyi joonde nde Lamcfo Jul6e Amiiru men, 2.2 "Be futtini mbattudi maako girbuki diina men.     They destroyed the seat of our Commander of the Faithful, They created a replacement for the purpose of destroying our religion. 3 . 1 Khaliifah to wattitoyaama dum diina yirboyaa, 3.2 Nganam anndu sulďaanu wonaa diina laamoyaa.     Once Commander of the Faithful replaced, religion collapsed, Because sultan can be a leader not necessarily for religion. 4. 1 Nganam ni giďaaďe ďe Lugga bee Lamcfo Ingila, 4.2 Ko senndiri dum ni yo Julďo ardi ba salsala.    This was just the plan and wish of Lugard and king of England, The difference was that a Muslim was heading as used to be. 5.1 Fa semmbe yo holaama e koo toye ndaaruďaa, 5.2 Laruura ni ngeldirten 6e 6ur6e 6e semmbiďa.     Actually force was exercised at whatever angle you look at it,      Let us just accept that for the sake of necessity, since they overpowered us. 6. 1 "Be ngartiri diina me3en ka maßße e mardi non, 6.2 "Be suuďi e jiiba nde wurtinaa wayli nonnde non.     They turned our religion to be their ownership,    They hid it in pocket, when brought out it was not the same. 7.1 Fa konguďi Allah Ceniiďo haaďi e masj idu, 7.2 Fa kiita bo kongudi Jooji gayďo Muhammadu.    Allah's commandments remained at the mosque only, Everyday command and prohibition now belong to King George, the enemy of Muhammad. 8. 1 Ga Allah ni koo ďume wayli kunguďi lamße men, 8.2 E hoolaare ngam ni 6e mbirgi bolle sharii'a men.    By God, everything changed, including the views of our emirs,  And security [collapsed]    because they destroyed our legal system. 9. 1 Nde Kuťaanu huurunoye yo hoolaare koo toye, 9.2 E Lesdi ndi Hausa to fuďďi haaďi e hooloye.    When Quťanic order was observed, security was everywhere, T    he whole of Hausaland [the Caliphate] from beginning to the end was secured.  1 0. 1 No ďum ftiďdirii nanoye mo Fiťawna wonnduno, 1 0.2 Ba Haamaana Lugga nga noota Jooji nga tiďďino.      Please listen to how it started, like the one with Pharaoh,      Called Hamana [same as] Lugard, he was too loyal to [King] George. 11.1 E wailanke lesdi Fideri Lugga yo moftoyii, 1 1 .2 Fa yimße mu'um wii lesdi hannde mo jabtoyii.    In the northern part, Frederick Lugard gathered his people, And said to them the land became "ours" by snatching. 12.1 Ko ßawtini ßaawo 6e mbar 6e mbarmbar 6e ayboyay, 12.2 E soynde mo iimaanu 6e asni gureeji foy.      Thereafter they killed innocent people ruthlessly, They did not have human heart; they caused great       loss to towns and villages. 13.1 Fa duußi tati ďum haala ngota ba mbiimi non, 13.2 "Be njabtake lesdi 6e ndippi sei ko ße kongi non.    For about three years they were doing the same thing, They colonized the land, got seated and only        what they commanded. 1 4. 1 Nde moodißße woßße mbPii laruura ni ngerdoyen, 14.2 To hujja ße ngaddani men yo faamooha hakkilen.      Since some scholars said it was due to necessity, let us accept, If the reasons they brought to us "make" sense and are dependable. 15.1 Toyee suurawol lanfaalu aaya Ritaalu men, 15.2 Muyße haßooße to yotti noogas he nder me'en.     Refer to Suratul-anfal45 verse that mentions about war, If there are twenty good patient fighters among us.    16.1 "Be njaaloto mPatayni to heeferße halluße, 16.2 Nganam ni 6e laatake yim6e naa jom 6e faamuße.     They will defeat two hundred fierce unbelievers, Because they are not people that normally understand.  17.1 Nde j ooni bo hoynonoyaama ngam sabbu laafere, 1 7.2 Fa teemerre muy6e he jaalo mPatayni heefere.     Since it has now been eased due to your weakness, One hundred patient ones will defeat two hundred unbelievers.   18.1 E maa^idah mumtahnah e ton fu e tuugoye, 1 8.2 Hadiise mo Tirmizi ibnu Abbas he filloye. In Maa'idah48 and Mumtahinah49 may also be referred to, A Tirmizi hadith which ibn Abbas narrated may also be a reference.  
    73 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  • "Heeferße Njabtii Ardungal" - "The Unbelievers Snatched the Leadership." This poem is believed to have been written by Malam Hammadu Mo Bindi, a dis- ciple of Malam Muhammad Tukur 6ii Binta. Malam Tukur wrote many poems, and one of the most popular among them is a voluminous work titled Busra 'u9 containing well over one thousand verses of dual -stanza lines. The eighteen dual -stanza lines included here are believed to be part of a longer poem contain- ing forty dual-stanza lines, which dates from about 1915. The theme of these lines focuses on memories of the good governance of the Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria, which was destroyed by the British) HEEFERBE NJABTII ARDUNGAL THE UNBELIEVERS SNATCHED LEADERSHIP 1.1 "Be tawße ko sheehu me^en mujaddadi we^iti, 1 .2 "Be wirgi 6e mbar yonki 6e asni 6e sankiti.      They met what our sheikh,     the revivalist, had founded, They destroyed it; they killed souls and caused loss of property. 2. 1 "Be wirgoyi joonde nde Lamcfo Jul6e Amiiru men, 2.2 "Be futtini mbattudi maako girbuki diina men.     They destroyed the seat of our Commander of the Faithful, They created a replacement for the purpose of destroying our religion. 3 . 1 Khaliifah to wattitoyaama dum diina yirboyaa, 3.2 Nganam anndu sulďaanu wonaa diina laamoyaa.     Once Commander of the Faithful replaced, religion collapsed, Because sultan can be a leader not necessarily for religion. 4. 1 Nganam ni giďaaďe ďe Lugga bee Lamcfo Ingila, 4.2 Ko senndiri dum ni yo Julďo ardi ba salsala.    This was just the plan and wish of Lugard and king of England, The difference was that a Muslim was heading as used to be. 5.1 Fa semmbe yo holaama e koo toye ndaaruďaa, 5.2 Laruura ni ngeldirten 6e 6ur6e 6e semmbiďa.     Actually force was exercised at whatever angle you look at it,      Let us just accept that for the sake of necessity, since they overpowered us. 6. 1 "Be ngartiri diina me3en ka maßße e mardi non, 6.2 "Be suuďi e jiiba nde wurtinaa wayli nonnde non.     They turned our religion to be their ownership,    They hid it in pocket, when brought out it was not the same. 7.1 Fa konguďi Allah Ceniiďo haaďi e masj idu, 7.2 Fa kiita bo kongudi Jooji gayďo Muhammadu.    Allah's commandments remained at the mosque only, Everyday command and prohibition now belong to King George, the enemy of Muhammad. 8. 1 Ga Allah ni koo ďume wayli kunguďi lamße men, 8.2 E hoolaare ngam ni 6e mbirgi bolle sharii'a men.    By God, everything changed, including the views of our emirs,  And security [collapsed]    because they destroyed our legal system. 9. 1 Nde Kuťaanu huurunoye yo hoolaare koo toye, 9.2 E Lesdi ndi Hausa to fuďďi haaďi e hooloye.    When Quťanic order was observed, security was everywhere, T    he whole of Hausaland [the Caliphate] from beginning to the end was secured.  1 0. 1 No ďum ftiďdirii nanoye mo Fiťawna wonnduno, 1 0.2 Ba Haamaana Lugga nga noota Jooji nga tiďďino.      Please listen to how it started, like the one with Pharaoh,      Called Hamana [same as] Lugard, he was too loyal to [King] George. 11.1 E wailanke lesdi Fideri Lugga yo moftoyii, 1 1 .2 Fa yimße mu'um wii lesdi hannde mo jabtoyii.    In the northern part, Frederick Lugard gathered his people, And said to them the land became "ours" by snatching. 12.1 Ko ßawtini ßaawo 6e mbar 6e mbarmbar 6e ayboyay, 12.2 E soynde mo iimaanu 6e asni gureeji foy.      Thereafter they killed innocent people ruthlessly, They did not have human heart; they caused great       loss to towns and villages. 13.1 Fa duußi tati ďum haala ngota ba mbiimi non, 13.2 "Be njabtake lesdi 6e ndippi sei ko ße kongi non.    For about three years they were doing the same thing, They colonized the land, got seated and only        what they commanded. 1 4. 1 Nde moodißße woßße mbPii laruura ni ngerdoyen, 14.2 To hujja ße ngaddani men yo faamooha hakkilen.      Since some scholars said it was due to necessity, let us accept, If the reasons they brought to us "make" sense and are dependable. 15.1 Toyee suurawol lanfaalu aaya Ritaalu men, 15.2 Muyße haßooße to yotti noogas he nder me'en.     Refer to Suratul-anfal45 verse that mentions about war, If there are twenty good patient fighters among us.    16.1 "Be njaaloto mPatayni to heeferße halluße, 16.2 Nganam ni 6e laatake yim6e naa jom 6e faamuße.     They will defeat two hundred fierce unbelievers, Because they are not people that normally understand.  17.1 Nde j ooni bo hoynonoyaama ngam sabbu laafere, 1 7.2 Fa teemerre muy6e he jaalo mPatayni heefere.     Since it has now been eased due to your weakness, One hundred patient ones will defeat two hundred unbelievers.   18.1 E maa^idah mumtahnah e ton fu e tuugoye, 1 8.2 Hadiise mo Tirmizi ibnu Abbas he filloye. In Maa'idah48 and Mumtahinah49 may also be referred to, A Tirmizi hadith which ibn Abbas narrated may also be a reference.  
    Oct 01, 2017 73
  • 01 Oct 2017
    (2. "Keeri Dow Hawa" - "The Artificial Boundaries." This poem was com- posed by Malam Buba Jarida, who used to also draw images of people and to comment on them, rather than writing poems. It was not dated but mostly corresponds to the process of territorial reorganization by Britain and France, which was well under way by 1918 (when Germany was conquered in World War I).The theme of the poem focuses on the disruption caused by the creation of formal borders during the colonial period, which affected the lives of those living between Nigeria and Cameroon.) KEERI DOWHAWA (THE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARIES) 1.1 Ko nanmi maamiraawo oora warta, 1 .2 Njayri e feesi jaanyoyaa a hirta.       I heard that my grandfather used to take cattle to pasture in the vast land,      And return with cattle [in the evening] and have supper. 2. 1 Nasaara'en faransa sangi tayre, 2.2 Ingila hawtanii 6e hoosi tayre.      The French fenced one part,20      And the British did the same. 1 3.1 "Be mbii e walde maama won yo feere, 3.2 E ton to ooretee bo lesdi feere.      They claimed that where my grandfather was living with his cattle became a different country     And the pastureland where he used to take his cattle for pasture also became a different country  4. 1 Keeri mbaďaama ton hawaa'u henndu, 4.2 *Billana oora jaanya'en e haddu.      Imaginary divisions were created in the air,      Just to create difficulties for the cattle-herders. 5 . 1 AlmanPen fu tamnduno nokkuure, 5.2 Nden daga 6aawo sammoyii saawabre.       The Germans too claimed a certain portion,       Later on left and abandoned it. 6. 1 Almani'en Faransa'en Biraati, 6.2 "Be amtoyii e lesdi ndi ko ßawti.     The Germans, the French, and the British,     They caused atrocities on this land before. 7.1 "Be laaßa õandu amma saani nyiddi, 7.2 Ko sappi anniyaaji din 6e ngardi.    Their bodies look white, but their manners look ugly,    This indicated the intention they came with. 8. 1 Walaa ko fastiyam mi dilla Garwa, 8.2 Don daga Yola koo e faago Marwa.       I don't care I will travel to Garoua,       Here from Yola or even up to Maroua. 9. 1 Ko yoo bani oo koďo lennguruujo, 9.2 Garďo he sennda lesdi maamiraajo.    Ah! What type of visitor is that,    Who came sharing our grandfather's land? 10. 1 Semmbe na hiila koo mbi'e o 'yoyďo, 1 0.2 Lamďo mo Rai e ďaani na o pinďo?    Is it by force, by tricks, or he was just so clever,    Was the emir of Rai25 sleeping or awake? 11.1 Ko tulli dum o futtini jomorli, 1 1 .2 Di anndanaaka ngam o giďďo gerii.    Not only that, he even introduced taxes,    Ones not known before because he liked chicken. 12. 1 Jooni kurum mi fahmi oo Nasaara, 1 2.2 Wonaa maraljo ban no jullu tammoraa. I have now understood this White Man, He is not as rich as people thought. (from Muslim Responses to British Colonialism in Northern Nigeria as Expressed in FulfuldePoems Author(s): Mallam M. Bashir Abubakar Source: Islamic Africa, Vol. 4, No. 1 (SPRING 2013), pp. 1-14 Published by: Brill Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42636210 Accessed: 18-06-2016 03:13 UTC)
    45 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  • (2. "Keeri Dow Hawa" - "The Artificial Boundaries." This poem was com- posed by Malam Buba Jarida, who used to also draw images of people and to comment on them, rather than writing poems. It was not dated but mostly corresponds to the process of territorial reorganization by Britain and France, which was well under way by 1918 (when Germany was conquered in World War I).The theme of the poem focuses on the disruption caused by the creation of formal borders during the colonial period, which affected the lives of those living between Nigeria and Cameroon.) KEERI DOWHAWA (THE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARIES) 1.1 Ko nanmi maamiraawo oora warta, 1 .2 Njayri e feesi jaanyoyaa a hirta.       I heard that my grandfather used to take cattle to pasture in the vast land,      And return with cattle [in the evening] and have supper. 2. 1 Nasaara'en faransa sangi tayre, 2.2 Ingila hawtanii 6e hoosi tayre.      The French fenced one part,20      And the British did the same. 1 3.1 "Be mbii e walde maama won yo feere, 3.2 E ton to ooretee bo lesdi feere.      They claimed that where my grandfather was living with his cattle became a different country     And the pastureland where he used to take his cattle for pasture also became a different country  4. 1 Keeri mbaďaama ton hawaa'u henndu, 4.2 *Billana oora jaanya'en e haddu.      Imaginary divisions were created in the air,      Just to create difficulties for the cattle-herders. 5 . 1 AlmanPen fu tamnduno nokkuure, 5.2 Nden daga 6aawo sammoyii saawabre.       The Germans too claimed a certain portion,       Later on left and abandoned it. 6. 1 Almani'en Faransa'en Biraati, 6.2 "Be amtoyii e lesdi ndi ko ßawti.     The Germans, the French, and the British,     They caused atrocities on this land before. 7.1 "Be laaßa õandu amma saani nyiddi, 7.2 Ko sappi anniyaaji din 6e ngardi.    Their bodies look white, but their manners look ugly,    This indicated the intention they came with. 8. 1 Walaa ko fastiyam mi dilla Garwa, 8.2 Don daga Yola koo e faago Marwa.       I don't care I will travel to Garoua,       Here from Yola or even up to Maroua. 9. 1 Ko yoo bani oo koďo lennguruujo, 9.2 Garďo he sennda lesdi maamiraajo.    Ah! What type of visitor is that,    Who came sharing our grandfather's land? 10. 1 Semmbe na hiila koo mbi'e o 'yoyďo, 1 0.2 Lamďo mo Rai e ďaani na o pinďo?    Is it by force, by tricks, or he was just so clever,    Was the emir of Rai25 sleeping or awake? 11.1 Ko tulli dum o futtini jomorli, 1 1 .2 Di anndanaaka ngam o giďďo gerii.    Not only that, he even introduced taxes,    Ones not known before because he liked chicken. 12. 1 Jooni kurum mi fahmi oo Nasaara, 1 2.2 Wonaa maraljo ban no jullu tammoraa. I have now understood this White Man, He is not as rich as people thought. (from Muslim Responses to British Colonialism in Northern Nigeria as Expressed in FulfuldePoems Author(s): Mallam M. Bashir Abubakar Source: Islamic Africa, Vol. 4, No. 1 (SPRING 2013), pp. 1-14 Published by: Brill Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42636210 Accessed: 18-06-2016 03:13 UTC)
    Oct 01, 2017 45

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    THE CONCEPT OF PULAAKU MIRROREDIN FULFULDE PROVERBS OF THE GOMBE DIALECT   Rudolf Leger and Abubakar B. Mohammad Introduction The paper gives a brief history of the Fulçe people who are found all overWest and Central Africa. Since no study of a people is complete without mentioning their language, the paper also gives a very brief account of Fulfulde, the language of the Fulçe people. However, the central focus of the paper is the concept of pulaaku, thatunique attribute of the Fulçe that serves as an unwritten code of conduct for all ‘true’ Fulçe. Pulaaku is Fulçe’s guiding principle in their dealings with their fellow Fulçe as well as with all other people.   Rather than talk about pulaaku in isolation, however, the paper tries to mirror it through Fulfulde proverbs. Coded or loaded messages called wise-sayings or proverbs are widely used in all languages. Fulfulde is particularly rich in this, which is why the paper explores this reservoir of knowledge in trying to portray the rich culture of the Fulçe people. The corpus of proverbs from which the selected proverbs come, was compiled in and around Gombe with the help of Mallam Bappayo Bappa Yerima Djibril.Since the Fulçe are easily the most dispersed people in Africa, no singlestudy can do real justice to all of them. This is why this study narrows itsscope to cover just the Fulçe of Gombe area of the northeastern of Nigeria. The Fulçe: A brief history The area covered by the Benue-Gongola-Chad Basin has been rightly described as “a zone of ethnic and linguistic compression”, owing to the convergence of various peoples into the area from times immemorial(JUNGRAITHMAYR & LEGER, 1993:165). A relatively recent migration into this region, however, took place in the eighteenth and the beginning of the last century (HOGBEN & KIRK-GREENE 1966:429f.). This was the period of Fulçe incursion into the heart of the Hausaland and Borno. They subsequently spread to as far as Gombe and Yola and even further into the Cameroon (TEMPLE 1919/1965:398). This peaceful incursion was interrupted in 1804 when, under the leadership of Usman Ãan Fodiyo, the Fulçe of Sokoto revolted against the Chief of Gobir. A ‘Jihad’ was then declared by the Fulçe and their Muslim supporters, which succeeded in overthrowing the traditional overlords throughout the Hausaland and beyond. The ‘Jihad’ had very farreaching consequences, which not only affected religious movements, but also political, economic and intellectual factors were involved. It also had a great impact on the linguistic situation and ethnic structures of the autochthonous people living there. The Fulçe themselves were perhaps the most affected.Whilst the ‘Cattle Fulçe’ had remained much as they were, the ‘Town Fulçe’ found themselves in positions of power and responsibility. Some of them became Emirs, District Chiefs, Village Heads and wealthy private individuals.The importance of language to the culture of a people has compelled us to include the Fulfulde language in our study. This is in addition to paying a closer attention to their complex ways of life - their ethics, beliefs and cultural behaviour. It is believed that a ruling class is always highly regarded within a multiethnic and multicultural society. Consequently, the ethnic group, to which the ruling class belongs, is often imitated or even copied by the other groups out of respect and admiration.   The Fulçe and their language. The Fulçe, whose population can roughly be estimated at 10 to 15 millionspeakers (cf. GOTTSCHLIGG 1992:1, 24 million now 2007) are found scattered over the whole of West and Central Africa up to the shores of the Red Sea. The original homeland of the Fulçe is believed to have been the middle Senegal River valley and the adjacent Futa Toro Savannah (ARMSTRONG 1978:9; MURDOCK 1959:413-414). From there in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Fulçe began their great migration towards the south and east, whereby today the fringes of their Diaspora lie in southern Mauritania, in the west to as far east as the Sudan(ARNOTT 1970:1). The classification of their language, Fulfulde, was a controversial subject. Many contradictory theories have been propounded, three ofwhich can be summarised as follows (ABU-MANGA 1986:3). • Fulfulde is a (pre-) Hamitic or Semito-Hamitic language, whose nominalclass system developed under strong influences of (West-)African languages (MEINHOF 1911:18f., 1912:2, 14f.; MUKAROVSKY 1980:125f.).• Fulfulde is a (Hamito-)Semitic language, which shares genetic origins with Arabic and Hebrew (ENGESTRÖM 1954:21). • Fulfulde is a West African language, belonging to the West Atlantic group of the Niger-Kordofanian language family (GREENBERG 1963:28). This is the most recognised and popular classification. An even more complex question than that of its classification concerns the different dialects of Fulfulde, whose distinctive features have only been partially described (cf. LEGER 1998:323f.) Based on ARNOTT (1970:3) and GOTTSCHLIGG (1992:50), six main dialect areas can be distinguished:   1.Futa Tooro (Senegal), 2. Futa Jaloo (Guinea), 3. Maasina (Mali), 4. Sokoto and Western Niger, 5. ‘Central’ (northern Nigeria and eastern Niger) 6.Adamaawa.   Nevertheless ARNOTT (cf. 1970) admits that dialectal bordersoverlap and agrees that: „The demarcation of dialects is inevitably an arbitrary process, especially in view of the mobility of the nomadic Fulani“. In addition, we have to take into account the mutual borrowing between Fulfulde and its neighbouring languages, as well as the multilingualism of the majority of Fulçe. This also plays an important role when studying Fulfulde dialects. The concept of pulaaku „Pulaaku is an abstract noun formed from the root ‘ful-‘ from which are other terms (like): Pullo, Fulçe (a Fulani, Fulanis), Fulfulde (the language, Fula), and pulaade (to act like a Fulani) are also derived.“ (RIESMAN 1977:127). pulaaku therefore means „the qualities appropriate to a Fulani“ (cf. RIESMAN 1977:127).                                                                                                                                          Abu Manga (not published) describes pulaaku with all its ideals as „the cornerstone of the Fulani culture“ and cites a proverb in which dignity,one of the highest aspects of pulaaku, is illustrated: NeÃÃaaku Ãum nebbam to rufi çoftataako“ (‘Dignity is like oil, once split it cannot be redeemed’). However, by far the most comprehensive definition of pulaaku is given inVEREECKE (1986:98) „Pulaaku specifies the actual rules or guidelines for appropriate behaviour and presentation of self, as well as a series of virtues and personal attributes, which may be viewed as rewards for behaving like a Pullo.“ In other words, pulaaku ‘is a Fulbe-exclusive marker.’ Although the concept of pulaaku is a universal one, common to all Fulçe wherever they may be, the extent of its use by the Fulçe varies from one dialectal area to another or, indeed, from one person to another, depending on his exposure, or lack of it, to non-Fulçe values and influences.As a matter of fact, some aspects of pulaaku have proved to be inimical to social interaction. For example, a Pullo would rather remain hungry than partake freely in food and drinks at a party. More serious still is when the fear of losing one’s pulaaku stops a Pullo from sending his children to school to acquire Western education. This has tended to make the Fulçe very conservative in their general worldview.There are many different aspects of pulaaku. If a person displays any ofthem he will be regarded as a Pullo or be liken to one. VEREECKE (1986: 98), for instance, reports that up to 15 components of pulaaku were identified in a study they undertook. Naturally, these components vary considerably in their occurrence and applicability. This is to say that it is rare, if not impossible, for any one individual Pullo to display all of them.However, for the purpose of this paper, only five of the most prominentcomponents of pulaaku will be discussed. Each of them will be illustrated by two or more appropriate Fulfulde proverbs. This is followed by a brief explanation of each of the proverbs. Some of the Fulfulde proverbs that mirror pulaaku. Collins English Dictionary defines a proverb as „a short memorable, and often highly condensed saying, embodying, especially with bold imagery, some commonplace facts of experience’. Every language has its own proverbs that are peculiar to it, and Fulfulde is no exception. For the purpose of this study, a careful selection of those Fulfulde proverbs that best exemplify the concept of pulaaku has been made. Semteende This is by far the most important component of pulaaku. It is also the most easily noticed; but not so easy to define. Its literal meaning is ‘shamefulness’.However, such terms as ‘being reserved’ or ‘shy’ will be less pejorative. It is expected of a true Pullo to display this characteristic. Among the proverbs that best depict semteende are the following: a. Torii heçii maa noye hakko toroo heçaayi?(To be granted one’s request is shameful enough, let alone when the request is turned down.) To the Pullo, it is very degrading to beg or request for something from someone. It is much more honourable for him to suppress such an urge no matter how pressing it might be. This is one of the attributes that may be harmful to the Pullo since it makes him keep to himself in a socially undesirable isolation. The most positive aspect of the concept of ‘semteendé’ is that it teacheshumility and self-denial. A Pullo who displays it will never be boastful andselfish.b. To honnduko nyaamii gite boo semta.(If the mouth has eaten, then the mouth must feel ashamed (expresses only gratitude).This proverb advises people who receive favours from someone that theyshould show deference as a sign of gratitude. It is absolutely necessary for one to openly display his pleasure and gratitude in return for favours and kindness received.c. Koo moye dura Ãi yeeso muuÃum. (Let everyone take care of what is in front of him.)This proverb is saying that one should mind one’s business and not to poke one’s nose into other people’s business. Most people do not take it kindly when they are given unsolicited advice. This is why a Pullo, in order to avoid being told off, tries to mind his own business. Munyal This can be interpreted to mean patience, tolerance or perseverance. It is expected of a Pullo to display this quality. Some of the proverbs that best depictMunyal include the following:a. No ndiyam luggiri fuu woodi njaareendi(No matter how deep a body of water is, there is fine sand at the bottom.)The proverb teaches us that whatever difficulty we may face, there will be relief in the end, if only we persevere. It is expected of a Pullo to display a high degree of perseverance. He must not always expect quick results or easy solutions to problems. "It was reported that once a Pullo came across a group of people surrounding a dead body near a river. By way of commiserating with the people, he asked what the cause of the death was. He was drowned in the river because he did not know how to swim. That was the reply. Why didn’t he go round the river? So asked the Pullo. How long do you think that would take? replied the people. How long will it take him to lie here? Said the Pullo."This short anecdote testifies not only to the Pullo’s witticism but also to his tremendous capacity for perseverance. b. Goonga hiiÃay hiddeko ko jaçee.(The truth will become old before people accept it.) The proverb is warning us not to expect people to readily accept the truth. It takes them a long time before they realise what it is. So, be prepared to give them time! The need for patience is therefore of paramount importance. c. Uumaaka çurii mbolwaaka.(What is groaned about surpasses what is spoken about.) When seemingly healthy people groan, it is a sign that they are carrying the burden of what worries them. In other words, there is more than meets the eyes, as it were. This also means that complaining and grumbling about an issue does not always help matters.EnÃam The meaning of this aspect of pulaaku is being kind and affectionate, especially to one’s own relations or kindred. The proverbs that depict enÃam include:a. Ko meemi kine fuu meemii gite.(Whatever affects the nose, affects the eyes also.) This proverb teaches us that whatever affects one’s family members or close friends also affects one. So, one rejoices with them when they are happy and commiserates with them when they are sad. In short, it teaches us to be humane, compassionate and to have flow-feeling. b. KoÃo Ãum ndiyam ndoggoojam.(A visitor is like run-off water.)This proverb is calling on us to be kind to our guests because they are as transient as the run-off water. It is therefore advisable to be much as nice to thembas possible while they are still with us. Ngorgu The literal meaning of ngorgu is ‘manliness’. It also means bravery. Theproverbs that depict ngorgu include the following:a. GiÃÃo çokkon colli doole yaaça gi’e.(He who goes after birds’ nests must be prepared to tread on thorns.) The proverb makes it clear that one has to labour first before one enjoys the fruits of one’s labour. In other words, ‘duty first before pleasure’, as the saying goes. b. Sollaare teppere çurii nde pooçe. (The dust on the heels is better than the one on the buttocks.) This proverb is saying that when you are on your feet it is the heels that become dusty; but if you are sitting down, it is the buttocks that become dusty.The message, therefore, is one must not be lazy, but be up and doing. NeÃÃaaku The meaning of neÃÃaaku is dignity or self-respect. The proverbs that best depict this aspect of pulaaku include:a. Nyaami haaraayi, çiiri haaray na?(If after eating, one is not full, will licking the bowl make one full?)This proverb admonishes against doing something that is beneath one’sdignity. According to Fulçe custom, grown ups and children do not normally eat from the same bowl. The grown ups must not eat all the food in their bowl; they must leave something for the children. This is referred to as çiirol or ‘licking’. b. Ndikka toraaki e wujjuki. (It is better to beg than to steal.)To a Pullo, begging is too lowering. However, if a choice is to be made, naturally, begging is far more honourable and, needless to say, legal. Conclusion A paper as short as this cannot do full justice to the concept pulaaku, no matter how much one tries to condense it. Neither can justice be done to Fulfulde proverbs for exactly the same reason. The corpus of Fulfulde proverbs is such that volumes could be written out of it, if that were the intention. However, it is our sincere belief that, if nothing else, the paper has succeeded in whetting the appetite of those interested in Fulçe studies generally, and in pulaaku and Fulçe proverbs, in particular. References. ABU-MANAGA, A.-A. (1986): Fulfulde in the Sudan: Process of Adaptation to Arabic. Berlin.ABU-MANGA, A.-A. (no date): The concept of ‘woman’ in Fulani narratives. Unpublished paper, read at the First Annual Congress of Nigerian Folklore Society Sept. 27th – 30th 1981 in Kano. ARMSTRONG, R.G. 1978: Development of Fulani Studies: A linguist’s view. In: H.Jungraithmayr (ed.), Struktur und Wandel afrikanischer Sprachen. S. 7-89.Berlin. ARNOTT, D.W. (1970): The Nominal and Verbal Systems of Fula. Oxford.ENGESTRÖM, T. (1954): Apport à la théorie des origines du peuple et de la langue peulhe. Stockholm. GOTTSCHLIGG, P. (1992): Verbale Valenz und Kasus im Ful. Wien.GREENBERG, J.H. (1963): Languages of Africa. The Hague.HOGBEN, S.J. and A.H.M. KIRK-GREENE (1966): The Emirates of Northern Nigeria– A Preliminary Survey of their Historical Traditions. London.JUNGRAITHMAYR, H. and R. LEGER (1993): The Benue-Gongola-Chad Basin – Zone of ethnic and linguistic compression. Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268, Bd. 2, S. 161-172. Frankfurt am Main.LEGER, R. (1997): Tongue Twisters in Gombe Fulfulde. In: R. Leger (ed.), FulfuldeStudien – Fula Studies, Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter 9, S. 79-86.LEGER, R. (1998): Noun Classes in Fulfulde: The ‘Pulaar’ of Guinea and the ‘Fulfulde’ of Sudan. In: V. Vydrine et A. Kibrik (éd.), La Langue,L’Afrique, Les Peuls. Recucil d’articles dédiés a Antonina Koval, p. 323-334. St. Petersbourg – Moscou.MEINHOF, C. (1911): Das Ful in seiner Bedeutung für die Sprachen der Hamiten,Semiten und Bantu. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 65, p.177-220. MEINHOF, C. (1912): Die Sprache der Hamiten. Hamburg.MUKAROVSKY, H. (1980): Contribution à l’histoire des langues peul, sérèr et wolof.Itinérances I, p. 13-149. MURDOCK, G.P. (1959): Africa, its Peoples and their Culture History. New York.RIESMAN, P. (1977): Freedom in Fulani Social Life. Chicago.TEMPLE, C.L. (ed.) (1919, 1922, 1965): Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Compiled from Official Reports by O. Temple – Liverpool. VEREECKE, C. (1986): pulaaku: Ethnic Identity Among the Adamawa Fulbe. Annals of Bornu III.
    14254 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  • THE CONCEPT OF PULAAKU MIRROREDIN FULFULDE PROVERBS OF THE GOMBE DIALECT   Rudolf Leger and Abubakar B. Mohammad Introduction The paper gives a brief history of the Fulçe people who are found all overWest and Central Africa. Since no study of a people is complete without mentioning their language, the paper also gives a very brief account of Fulfulde, the language of the Fulçe people. However, the central focus of the paper is the concept of pulaaku, thatunique attribute of the Fulçe that serves as an unwritten code of conduct for all ‘true’ Fulçe. Pulaaku is Fulçe’s guiding principle in their dealings with their fellow Fulçe as well as with all other people.   Rather than talk about pulaaku in isolation, however, the paper tries to mirror it through Fulfulde proverbs. Coded or loaded messages called wise-sayings or proverbs are widely used in all languages. Fulfulde is particularly rich in this, which is why the paper explores this reservoir of knowledge in trying to portray the rich culture of the Fulçe people. The corpus of proverbs from which the selected proverbs come, was compiled in and around Gombe with the help of Mallam Bappayo Bappa Yerima Djibril.Since the Fulçe are easily the most dispersed people in Africa, no singlestudy can do real justice to all of them. This is why this study narrows itsscope to cover just the Fulçe of Gombe area of the northeastern of Nigeria. The Fulçe: A brief history The area covered by the Benue-Gongola-Chad Basin has been rightly described as “a zone of ethnic and linguistic compression”, owing to the convergence of various peoples into the area from times immemorial(JUNGRAITHMAYR & LEGER, 1993:165). A relatively recent migration into this region, however, took place in the eighteenth and the beginning of the last century (HOGBEN & KIRK-GREENE 1966:429f.). This was the period of Fulçe incursion into the heart of the Hausaland and Borno. They subsequently spread to as far as Gombe and Yola and even further into the Cameroon (TEMPLE 1919/1965:398). This peaceful incursion was interrupted in 1804 when, under the leadership of Usman Ãan Fodiyo, the Fulçe of Sokoto revolted against the Chief of Gobir. A ‘Jihad’ was then declared by the Fulçe and their Muslim supporters, which succeeded in overthrowing the traditional overlords throughout the Hausaland and beyond. The ‘Jihad’ had very farreaching consequences, which not only affected religious movements, but also political, economic and intellectual factors were involved. It also had a great impact on the linguistic situation and ethnic structures of the autochthonous people living there. The Fulçe themselves were perhaps the most affected.Whilst the ‘Cattle Fulçe’ had remained much as they were, the ‘Town Fulçe’ found themselves in positions of power and responsibility. Some of them became Emirs, District Chiefs, Village Heads and wealthy private individuals.The importance of language to the culture of a people has compelled us to include the Fulfulde language in our study. This is in addition to paying a closer attention to their complex ways of life - their ethics, beliefs and cultural behaviour. It is believed that a ruling class is always highly regarded within a multiethnic and multicultural society. Consequently, the ethnic group, to which the ruling class belongs, is often imitated or even copied by the other groups out of respect and admiration.   The Fulçe and their language. The Fulçe, whose population can roughly be estimated at 10 to 15 millionspeakers (cf. GOTTSCHLIGG 1992:1, 24 million now 2007) are found scattered over the whole of West and Central Africa up to the shores of the Red Sea. The original homeland of the Fulçe is believed to have been the middle Senegal River valley and the adjacent Futa Toro Savannah (ARMSTRONG 1978:9; MURDOCK 1959:413-414). From there in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Fulçe began their great migration towards the south and east, whereby today the fringes of their Diaspora lie in southern Mauritania, in the west to as far east as the Sudan(ARNOTT 1970:1). The classification of their language, Fulfulde, was a controversial subject. Many contradictory theories have been propounded, three ofwhich can be summarised as follows (ABU-MANGA 1986:3). • Fulfulde is a (pre-) Hamitic or Semito-Hamitic language, whose nominalclass system developed under strong influences of (West-)African languages (MEINHOF 1911:18f., 1912:2, 14f.; MUKAROVSKY 1980:125f.).• Fulfulde is a (Hamito-)Semitic language, which shares genetic origins with Arabic and Hebrew (ENGESTRÖM 1954:21). • Fulfulde is a West African language, belonging to the West Atlantic group of the Niger-Kordofanian language family (GREENBERG 1963:28). This is the most recognised and popular classification. An even more complex question than that of its classification concerns the different dialects of Fulfulde, whose distinctive features have only been partially described (cf. LEGER 1998:323f.) Based on ARNOTT (1970:3) and GOTTSCHLIGG (1992:50), six main dialect areas can be distinguished:   1.Futa Tooro (Senegal), 2. Futa Jaloo (Guinea), 3. Maasina (Mali), 4. Sokoto and Western Niger, 5. ‘Central’ (northern Nigeria and eastern Niger) 6.Adamaawa.   Nevertheless ARNOTT (cf. 1970) admits that dialectal bordersoverlap and agrees that: „The demarcation of dialects is inevitably an arbitrary process, especially in view of the mobility of the nomadic Fulani“. In addition, we have to take into account the mutual borrowing between Fulfulde and its neighbouring languages, as well as the multilingualism of the majority of Fulçe. This also plays an important role when studying Fulfulde dialects. The concept of pulaaku „Pulaaku is an abstract noun formed from the root ‘ful-‘ from which are other terms (like): Pullo, Fulçe (a Fulani, Fulanis), Fulfulde (the language, Fula), and pulaade (to act like a Fulani) are also derived.“ (RIESMAN 1977:127). pulaaku therefore means „the qualities appropriate to a Fulani“ (cf. RIESMAN 1977:127).                                                                                                                                          Abu Manga (not published) describes pulaaku with all its ideals as „the cornerstone of the Fulani culture“ and cites a proverb in which dignity,one of the highest aspects of pulaaku, is illustrated: NeÃÃaaku Ãum nebbam to rufi çoftataako“ (‘Dignity is like oil, once split it cannot be redeemed’). However, by far the most comprehensive definition of pulaaku is given inVEREECKE (1986:98) „Pulaaku specifies the actual rules or guidelines for appropriate behaviour and presentation of self, as well as a series of virtues and personal attributes, which may be viewed as rewards for behaving like a Pullo.“ In other words, pulaaku ‘is a Fulbe-exclusive marker.’ Although the concept of pulaaku is a universal one, common to all Fulçe wherever they may be, the extent of its use by the Fulçe varies from one dialectal area to another or, indeed, from one person to another, depending on his exposure, or lack of it, to non-Fulçe values and influences.As a matter of fact, some aspects of pulaaku have proved to be inimical to social interaction. For example, a Pullo would rather remain hungry than partake freely in food and drinks at a party. More serious still is when the fear of losing one’s pulaaku stops a Pullo from sending his children to school to acquire Western education. This has tended to make the Fulçe very conservative in their general worldview.There are many different aspects of pulaaku. If a person displays any ofthem he will be regarded as a Pullo or be liken to one. VEREECKE (1986: 98), for instance, reports that up to 15 components of pulaaku were identified in a study they undertook. Naturally, these components vary considerably in their occurrence and applicability. This is to say that it is rare, if not impossible, for any one individual Pullo to display all of them.However, for the purpose of this paper, only five of the most prominentcomponents of pulaaku will be discussed. Each of them will be illustrated by two or more appropriate Fulfulde proverbs. This is followed by a brief explanation of each of the proverbs. Some of the Fulfulde proverbs that mirror pulaaku. Collins English Dictionary defines a proverb as „a short memorable, and often highly condensed saying, embodying, especially with bold imagery, some commonplace facts of experience’. Every language has its own proverbs that are peculiar to it, and Fulfulde is no exception. For the purpose of this study, a careful selection of those Fulfulde proverbs that best exemplify the concept of pulaaku has been made. Semteende This is by far the most important component of pulaaku. It is also the most easily noticed; but not so easy to define. Its literal meaning is ‘shamefulness’.However, such terms as ‘being reserved’ or ‘shy’ will be less pejorative. It is expected of a true Pullo to display this characteristic. Among the proverbs that best depict semteende are the following: a. Torii heçii maa noye hakko toroo heçaayi?(To be granted one’s request is shameful enough, let alone when the request is turned down.) To the Pullo, it is very degrading to beg or request for something from someone. It is much more honourable for him to suppress such an urge no matter how pressing it might be. This is one of the attributes that may be harmful to the Pullo since it makes him keep to himself in a socially undesirable isolation. The most positive aspect of the concept of ‘semteendé’ is that it teacheshumility and self-denial. A Pullo who displays it will never be boastful andselfish.b. To honnduko nyaamii gite boo semta.(If the mouth has eaten, then the mouth must feel ashamed (expresses only gratitude).This proverb advises people who receive favours from someone that theyshould show deference as a sign of gratitude. It is absolutely necessary for one to openly display his pleasure and gratitude in return for favours and kindness received.c. Koo moye dura Ãi yeeso muuÃum. (Let everyone take care of what is in front of him.)This proverb is saying that one should mind one’s business and not to poke one’s nose into other people’s business. Most people do not take it kindly when they are given unsolicited advice. This is why a Pullo, in order to avoid being told off, tries to mind his own business. Munyal This can be interpreted to mean patience, tolerance or perseverance. It is expected of a Pullo to display this quality. Some of the proverbs that best depictMunyal include the following:a. No ndiyam luggiri fuu woodi njaareendi(No matter how deep a body of water is, there is fine sand at the bottom.)The proverb teaches us that whatever difficulty we may face, there will be relief in the end, if only we persevere. It is expected of a Pullo to display a high degree of perseverance. He must not always expect quick results or easy solutions to problems. "It was reported that once a Pullo came across a group of people surrounding a dead body near a river. By way of commiserating with the people, he asked what the cause of the death was. He was drowned in the river because he did not know how to swim. That was the reply. Why didn’t he go round the river? So asked the Pullo. How long do you think that would take? replied the people. How long will it take him to lie here? Said the Pullo."This short anecdote testifies not only to the Pullo’s witticism but also to his tremendous capacity for perseverance. b. Goonga hiiÃay hiddeko ko jaçee.(The truth will become old before people accept it.) The proverb is warning us not to expect people to readily accept the truth. It takes them a long time before they realise what it is. So, be prepared to give them time! The need for patience is therefore of paramount importance. c. Uumaaka çurii mbolwaaka.(What is groaned about surpasses what is spoken about.) When seemingly healthy people groan, it is a sign that they are carrying the burden of what worries them. In other words, there is more than meets the eyes, as it were. This also means that complaining and grumbling about an issue does not always help matters.EnÃam The meaning of this aspect of pulaaku is being kind and affectionate, especially to one’s own relations or kindred. The proverbs that depict enÃam include:a. Ko meemi kine fuu meemii gite.(Whatever affects the nose, affects the eyes also.) This proverb teaches us that whatever affects one’s family members or close friends also affects one. So, one rejoices with them when they are happy and commiserates with them when they are sad. In short, it teaches us to be humane, compassionate and to have flow-feeling. b. KoÃo Ãum ndiyam ndoggoojam.(A visitor is like run-off water.)This proverb is calling on us to be kind to our guests because they are as transient as the run-off water. It is therefore advisable to be much as nice to thembas possible while they are still with us. Ngorgu The literal meaning of ngorgu is ‘manliness’. It also means bravery. Theproverbs that depict ngorgu include the following:a. GiÃÃo çokkon colli doole yaaça gi’e.(He who goes after birds’ nests must be prepared to tread on thorns.) The proverb makes it clear that one has to labour first before one enjoys the fruits of one’s labour. In other words, ‘duty first before pleasure’, as the saying goes. b. Sollaare teppere çurii nde pooçe. (The dust on the heels is better than the one on the buttocks.) This proverb is saying that when you are on your feet it is the heels that become dusty; but if you are sitting down, it is the buttocks that become dusty.The message, therefore, is one must not be lazy, but be up and doing. NeÃÃaaku The meaning of neÃÃaaku is dignity or self-respect. The proverbs that best depict this aspect of pulaaku include:a. Nyaami haaraayi, çiiri haaray na?(If after eating, one is not full, will licking the bowl make one full?)This proverb admonishes against doing something that is beneath one’sdignity. According to Fulçe custom, grown ups and children do not normally eat from the same bowl. The grown ups must not eat all the food in their bowl; they must leave something for the children. This is referred to as çiirol or ‘licking’. b. Ndikka toraaki e wujjuki. (It is better to beg than to steal.)To a Pullo, begging is too lowering. However, if a choice is to be made, naturally, begging is far more honourable and, needless to say, legal. Conclusion A paper as short as this cannot do full justice to the concept pulaaku, no matter how much one tries to condense it. Neither can justice be done to Fulfulde proverbs for exactly the same reason. The corpus of Fulfulde proverbs is such that volumes could be written out of it, if that were the intention. However, it is our sincere belief that, if nothing else, the paper has succeeded in whetting the appetite of those interested in Fulçe studies generally, and in pulaaku and Fulçe proverbs, in particular. References. ABU-MANAGA, A.-A. (1986): Fulfulde in the Sudan: Process of Adaptation to Arabic. Berlin.ABU-MANGA, A.-A. (no date): The concept of ‘woman’ in Fulani narratives. Unpublished paper, read at the First Annual Congress of Nigerian Folklore Society Sept. 27th – 30th 1981 in Kano. ARMSTRONG, R.G. 1978: Development of Fulani Studies: A linguist’s view. In: H.Jungraithmayr (ed.), Struktur und Wandel afrikanischer Sprachen. S. 7-89.Berlin. ARNOTT, D.W. (1970): The Nominal and Verbal Systems of Fula. Oxford.ENGESTRÖM, T. (1954): Apport à la théorie des origines du peuple et de la langue peulhe. Stockholm. GOTTSCHLIGG, P. (1992): Verbale Valenz und Kasus im Ful. Wien.GREENBERG, J.H. (1963): Languages of Africa. The Hague.HOGBEN, S.J. and A.H.M. KIRK-GREENE (1966): The Emirates of Northern Nigeria– A Preliminary Survey of their Historical Traditions. London.JUNGRAITHMAYR, H. and R. LEGER (1993): The Benue-Gongola-Chad Basin – Zone of ethnic and linguistic compression. Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268, Bd. 2, S. 161-172. Frankfurt am Main.LEGER, R. (1997): Tongue Twisters in Gombe Fulfulde. In: R. Leger (ed.), FulfuldeStudien – Fula Studies, Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter 9, S. 79-86.LEGER, R. (1998): Noun Classes in Fulfulde: The ‘Pulaar’ of Guinea and the ‘Fulfulde’ of Sudan. In: V. Vydrine et A. Kibrik (éd.), La Langue,L’Afrique, Les Peuls. Recucil d’articles dédiés a Antonina Koval, p. 323-334. St. Petersbourg – Moscou.MEINHOF, C. (1911): Das Ful in seiner Bedeutung für die Sprachen der Hamiten,Semiten und Bantu. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 65, p.177-220. MEINHOF, C. (1912): Die Sprache der Hamiten. Hamburg.MUKAROVSKY, H. (1980): Contribution à l’histoire des langues peul, sérèr et wolof.Itinérances I, p. 13-149. MURDOCK, G.P. (1959): Africa, its Peoples and their Culture History. New York.RIESMAN, P. (1977): Freedom in Fulani Social Life. Chicago.TEMPLE, C.L. (ed.) (1919, 1922, 1965): Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Compiled from Official Reports by O. Temple – Liverpool. VEREECKE, C. (1986): pulaaku: Ethnic Identity Among the Adamawa Fulbe. Annals of Bornu III.
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    A GLANCE AT LAMIBE (Emirs) MURI - by Misa Njidda 2007 PREFACE This piece, A glance at Lamibe Muri, is deliberately intended to briefly educate the reader on the times and genealogy of the Hammaruwa Kingdom, known today as the Muri Emirate. The scope of the work is narrowly focused on the appointments and succession of the twelve (12) Emirs that ruled Muri since its inception as a Kingdom in 1817. It will also enable the reader to know the 3rd class chiefs under the 21st Century in Muri. It is hoped that the simple structure of the contents will equip those of us who are not students of History with an idea of the genealogy of Lamibe Muri. I am indeed grateful to those whose work has helped in the production of this booklet. I am particularly indebted to Professor Abubakar Sa’ad the author of “Lamibe of Fombina” and “papers on Nigeria History”, A.H.M kirk-Greene the author of “Adamawa past and present” and also the 12th Emir of Muri; HRH Abbas Njidda Tafida whose leadership acumen, action and philosophies since ascension to the throne has greatly inspired me to produce this booklet. Finally, but by no means the least, my profound gratitude goes to Alhaji Sa’adu Abubakar (Late Wazirin Muri), Malama Hauwa Yerima Sanda, Professor Ahmed Usman Jalingo, Alhaji Abdullahi Wamban Muri, Late Malam Hamasani Kona, Late Barayan Muri, Justice Isa Mangaji, Late Patrick Noma Jen, Dr. Abbas Bashir Mafindi, Galadima Muri, Alhaji Tukur Abba Tukur as well as the Secretary to Muri Emirate Council, Alhaji Saidu Usman Gassol and my noble family and friends for their valuable inspiration and support. Misa Njidda Jan. 2007 BRIEF HISTORY OF LAMIBE MURI 1817 – 2006 Known in the 9th century as Hammanruwa Kingdom, the Emirate of Muri was founded in 1817 during the revolutionary movement of the Jihadist – Usman b. Fodio. Muri Emirate lies on both sides of the River Benue in North-eastern part of Nigeria with it’s modern day Headquarters at Jalingo, the capital city of Taraba State. The 1926 reorganization of Northern Nigeria provinces mapped the Muri province with it’s territorial control extended to Ibi, Wase and Shendam areas. The Muri Emirate has had a total of 12 Emirs inclusive of the Millennium ruler Alhaji Abbas Tafida Njidda. MODIBBO HAMMARUWA (1817 – 1833) Modibbo Hammaruwa, who was a younger brother to Lamido Buba Yero of Gombe and Lamido Hammadu of Tibati ( Now in Cameroun Republic), was the founder and first ruler who settled in Muri town situated on the Northern bank of River Benue presently in Karim-Lamido L.G.A of Taraba State. Lamido Hammaruwa had as at 1817 conquered the greater part of today’s Muri Emirate except Wase and Bakundi. He played great role during the Jihad of Usman Danfodio (1817 - 18) leading to the spread of Islam . He ruled for 17 years and died at Gombe in 1833.   LAMIDO IBRAHIM b. HAMMARUWA (1833 – 1848) Lamido Ibrahim B. Hammaruwa succeeded his father Lamido Hammaruwa and ruled from 1833 – 1848. At about 1836, he developed a psychological problem until 1848 when he became insane and was deposed and succeeded by his elder brother Hamman b. Hammaruwa.   LAMIDO HAMMAN b. HAMMARUWA (1848 – 1861) Lamido Hamman’s reign was characterized by internal wrangling involving his son Burba and his Nephew Hammadu, the son of the founder of Gassol, Bose. Lamido Hamman’s reign witnessed the conquering of Jibu by one of his Commanders called Kuso while Aliyu and Bula founded settlements in present day Bantaje and Ibi in 1885. He ruled for 13 years and was deposed in 1861 and later died at Mayo-Ranewo town of Ardo-kola L.G.A, Taraba State.   LAMIDO HAMMADU b. BOSE b. HAMMARUWA (1861 – 1869) Hammadu, the son of Bose who died in 1833 along with his father Modibbo Hammaruwa at Gombe, was popularly chosen from Gassol as successor to the deposed Lamido Hamman in 1861. He lived part of his time in Muri but moving to Gassol, Sendirde and Wuriyo towns where he appointed his sons to administer the towns, while his eldest son Umaru Sanda took charge of Muri at his absence. It was at this time that, Hammadu’s cousin and an old rival, Burba went further South wards and founded Bakundi. Lamido Hammadu b. Bose ruled for 8 years and died in 1869.   LAMIDO BURBA b. HAMMAN (1869 – 1873) On receiving the news on the death of Lamido Hammadu, the Caliphate in Sokoto directed that Abubakar, the son of Hammaruwa should be appointed Emir, but Muri people rejected him and instead appointed the rebellious Burba. Lamido Burba, the son of Lamido Hamman (1848-1861) was chosen from Bakundi by the Muri people. To consolidate his power, Burba had to grapple with the threat of Lamido Hammadu’s three sons (from Gassol, Sendirde and Wuryo) who had come to Muri town as claimants of the throne. However, four years later (1873), Gassol once again revolted and before Burba could punish them, he developed a mental problem and was deposed in 1873. When he regain soundness later, he then returned to his old home at Bakundi and remained as an independent ruler paying direct tribute to Sokoto before his death in 1892. Burba ruled Muri for four years (1869-1873)...   LAMIDO BAKARI b. HAMMARUWA (1873 – 1874) Bakari (Abubakar) who was earlier (1869) nominated by the Sultan of Sokoto but rejected by the Fulbe Muri in favor of Burba was appointed to succeed his Nephew in 1873 as the sixth Lamido of Muri. Lamido Bakari ruled for seven months and died. He was succeeded by his son, Muhammadu Nya in 1874.   LAMIDO MUHAMMADU NYA b. BAKARI (1874 – 1896) Muhammadu Nya popularly known as Lamido Jatau succeeded his father to become the seventh Emir of Muri in 1874. On assumption to the throne, he established friendliness with his deposed cousin Burba of Bakundi and together they combined forces to ensure proper control of Lamdo Hammadu’s sons in Gassol. Lamido Jatau was the one who signed the first treaty with the Europeans i.e. National African Company (Formerly Royal Niger Company) in 1893. apart from being the longest reigned Emir (22 years) of the 19th century Muri, Lamido Jatau had in early 1893 moved the Emirate headquarters to Jalingo (a town that had triumph) which was initially called Sangere (War Camp). Lamido Jatau died at Jalingo in June 1896 and was succeeded by his eldest son Hassan.   LAMIDO HASSAN b. MUHAMMADU NYA (1897 – 1903) After the death of Lamido Jatau, the Emirate witnessed minor succession problem in that, while the army and the Karaga “supported Hassan (eldest Son), the Fulbe preferred Hamman Mafindi. However, when the then Ajiyan Muri, Njidda, threw his weight behind Hassan , the problem was resolved and Hassan become the eight Lamido of Muri. Lamido Hassan then moved to Jalingo from Mutum-Biyu, where he had settled in 1895 and was formally investitured by the Sultan in September 1897. it was during his reign that Muri was declared (1901) part of the British Protectorate of Northern Nigeria after that of Sokoto (1900), by the British High Commissioner, Fredrick D. Lugard. Lamido Hassan died at Jalingo in 1903 and was succeeded by his brother Hamman Mafindi.   LAMIDO HAMMAN MAFINDI b. MUHAMMADU NYA (1903 – 1953) Hamman Mafindi who was the Tafidan Muri succeeded his brother Hassan b. Muhammadu Nya in 1903. After the death of Hassan, Mafindi moved to Jalingo from Mbanga where, he stayed after the political asylum granted him by Lamido Zubairu of Fombina (Yola). Traditional has it that he sat in silent prayers in the middle of the Mosque, conspicuous to all but conversing with none, until the council members became so anxious about the act and appointed him to the throne and was later installed at Lau. After about seven years (1903-1910) of ruler ship, Mafindi moved the Emirate headquarters from Lau to Mutum Biyu and appointed his eldest son, Madu as Danburam to oversee Jalingo District. Lamido Mafindi’s time saw the expansion of commercial activities and education (establishment of the First Primary School (Muhammadu Nya) in 1926), external relations, discipline and the reorganization and or creation of more districts e.g. the transfer of Sansani District to Gassol from Ibi Division in 1912. in addition to being the longest serving ruler (1903-53) of the 20th Century Muri, he was also the first to receive the C.B.E (1931) and C.M.G. (1946) awards for his notable services as recognized by the Colonial Masters.He died and was succeeded by his younger brother Muhammadu Tukur in 1953.   LAMIDO MUHAMMADU TUKUR b. NYA (1953 –1965) Tukur who was the district head of Wurkum (Karim Lamido) since inception, succeeded his brother, Mafindi, to become the tenth Emir in 1953. He introduced certain reforms and projects aimed at developing Muri. Lamido Tukur’s time saw the era of politics in which indigenes of Muri Secured representatives positions and appointments in the Regional and Central Government of Nigeria. He has worked towards building on what his predecessor has founded particularly in commerce and education. The first general hospital (now Federal Medical Centre), Jalingo was establish during his tutelage of Muri in 1963. LAMIDO UMARU ABBA b. MUHAMMADU TUKUR MFR (1965 – 1986) After the death of Tukur, his son who was then Parliamentary Minister in the Northern Nigeria Government of Sir Ahmadu Bello (Sardauna Sokoto) was appointed as the eleventh Emir of Muri in 1965. His time saw the establishment of more schools, hospitals, commercial activities, the creation of Local Government within the Emirate and upgrading of same to first class status in 1983, as well as the attainment for the first time of a governor by an indigene of Muri (Gov. A. Barde of Gongola State) in 1979. He was also awarded order of the Federal Republic (OFR) by the Federal Government of Nigeria for his notable services. Lamido Umaru Abba was deposed in 1986. LAMIDO ABBAS b. TAFIDA NJIDDA MAFINDI (1988 – DATE) Lamido Abbas succeeded his uncle, Lamido Umaru Abba Tukur, 2 years after the latter’s deposition (1986) by Governor Yohanna Madaki of then Gongola State. Lamido Abbas is then grandson of Lamido Mafindi (9th Emir of Muri), son of Lamido Nya (Jatau) the founder of Jalingo. Abbas Tafida’s reign is one of the most remarkable among those of his predecessors in that he had stayed on the throne without the official installation for 18 yeas (1988 – 2006). Lamido Abbas reign has so far witnessed great achievements in Muri e.g creation of Taraba State with Headquarters in Jalingo, creation of more L.G.As within Muri, establishment of more schools (e.g. Centre for Excellence, Jalingo), support for orphans and widows, expansion of commercial activities and agriculture as well as youth empowerment through vocational skills acquisition and scholarship awards program. He has also being educating the people of Muri on public health particularly HIV/AIDS and National program on immunization. Lamido Abbas Tafida was born in 1953 at Jalingo. He attended Mohammadu Nya Primary School, Jalingo from 1961 – 67 after which he proceeded to the famous Government College Keffi and later A.B.U. Zaria where he graduated with a Bachelors Degree in Business Admin. In 1977. He had also attended a Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management at the African Dev. Bank, Abidjan (1981 – 82) and Post Graduate Diploma in Chain Management at Green Beheld Smith and Co., London (1982 – 83). Alhaji Abbas Attended his National Service (NYSC) with the Kwara State Government (1977 – 1978) after which he joined Lever Brothers Nigeria. Ltd. (1978 - 1979). He also worked with the New Nigeria Development Company (NNDC) 1979 – 1983 and was appointed Managing Director of Nigeria Hotels (1983 – 1988) from where he was appointed the 12th Emir of Muri on 12th July, 1988. Lamido Abbas Tafida who is being installed (Thursday 25th January, 2006) is a man of principle and doughty philosophy that made him admired by his people. Above all, Lamido Abbas is well versed in Islamic Theology that made him place the fear of God first, in his dealings with people and in all endeavors.   PICTURES OF EMIRS AND CHIEFS The 3rd Class Chief of Muri Emirate The following are former district of Muri Emirate which were upgraded to Chiefdom s (3rd class) by the Governor Jolly T. Nyame reforms on Chieftaincy in Taraba State, 2006. Chiefdom 3rd Class Chief 1. Bakundi HRH Muhammadu Gidado Misa 2. Dakka HRH Yusuf Manga Ganwari 3. Gassol HRH Idris Yakubu Chiroma 4. Kwajji HRH Buba Nyala 5. Lau HRH Abubakar Umar Danburam 6. Mummuye HRH Ado Adamu Mazang 7. Mutum-Biyu HRH Suleiman Duna 8. Old Muri HRH Abdullahi Chiroma 9. Wurkum HRH Abubakar Haruna Karim FOR THE RECORDS 1.Zing Chiefdom which was formally under Muri Emirate has in 2006 been upgraded to 1st Class Chief and the name of the ruler is His Royal Highness Alhaji Abbas Ibrahim Sambo. 2. There are a total of 7 LGAs under today’s Muri Emirate viz:-Ardo-kola, Bali, Gassol, Jalingo, Karim-lamido,. Lau and Yorro LGAs. 3. Alhaji Waziri Ibrahim Malle was the Wakilin Muri (1986-1988) after the deposition of lamido Umaru Abba Tukur. 4. His Highness Alh. Nuhu Moh’d Bello (Sarkin Sansani – Gassol) and Hammadu Doubeli (Jauro Doubeli – Lau) are the oldest serving village heads having being appointed by Lamido Muhammadu Mafindi in 1952. 5. The renown Professor of History, Abubakar Sa’ad who is the first Professor, Ambassador, in Muri, and is the son of former Wazirin Muri (Waziri Sa’adu Abubakar). He is also the author of Lamibe of Fombina. 6. The resolution of Taraba State Government to officially install (staff of office) His Royal Highness Alhaji Abbas Njidda Tafida was pronounced during a an Id-el-ftr Sallah Durba at Kofar-Bai on 31st Dec., 2006. 7. The first Executive Governor of Taraba State (Jolly T. Nyame) is a native of Muri Emirate. 8. Lamido Abbas Njidda Tafida was appointed on 12th July,1988 by Governor David Jang (Military) of the defunct Gongola state. 9. The late Lamido Umaru Abba Tukur was the first person to be appointed a cabinet Minister in the history of Muri Emirate. 10. The first formal school in Muri is the Mohammadu Nya Primary School, Jalingo (founded 1926). 11. The first females to be enrolled in Western Schooling system in Muri was Hajiya Hauwa Umar Yerima, Titi Makenzi, Hajiya Hurera Danburam and Hajiya Adamajam Yerima. They were enrolled at Mohammadu Nya Primary School Jalingo in 1940. >> FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND ADVISE: Please contact the AUTHOR on njiddamisa@mail.com  
    1999 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  • A GLANCE AT LAMIBE (Emirs) MURI - by Misa Njidda 2007 PREFACE This piece, A glance at Lamibe Muri, is deliberately intended to briefly educate the reader on the times and genealogy of the Hammaruwa Kingdom, known today as the Muri Emirate. The scope of the work is narrowly focused on the appointments and succession of the twelve (12) Emirs that ruled Muri since its inception as a Kingdom in 1817. It will also enable the reader to know the 3rd class chiefs under the 21st Century in Muri. It is hoped that the simple structure of the contents will equip those of us who are not students of History with an idea of the genealogy of Lamibe Muri. I am indeed grateful to those whose work has helped in the production of this booklet. I am particularly indebted to Professor Abubakar Sa’ad the author of “Lamibe of Fombina” and “papers on Nigeria History”, A.H.M kirk-Greene the author of “Adamawa past and present” and also the 12th Emir of Muri; HRH Abbas Njidda Tafida whose leadership acumen, action and philosophies since ascension to the throne has greatly inspired me to produce this booklet. Finally, but by no means the least, my profound gratitude goes to Alhaji Sa’adu Abubakar (Late Wazirin Muri), Malama Hauwa Yerima Sanda, Professor Ahmed Usman Jalingo, Alhaji Abdullahi Wamban Muri, Late Malam Hamasani Kona, Late Barayan Muri, Justice Isa Mangaji, Late Patrick Noma Jen, Dr. Abbas Bashir Mafindi, Galadima Muri, Alhaji Tukur Abba Tukur as well as the Secretary to Muri Emirate Council, Alhaji Saidu Usman Gassol and my noble family and friends for their valuable inspiration and support. Misa Njidda Jan. 2007 BRIEF HISTORY OF LAMIBE MURI 1817 – 2006 Known in the 9th century as Hammanruwa Kingdom, the Emirate of Muri was founded in 1817 during the revolutionary movement of the Jihadist – Usman b. Fodio. Muri Emirate lies on both sides of the River Benue in North-eastern part of Nigeria with it’s modern day Headquarters at Jalingo, the capital city of Taraba State. The 1926 reorganization of Northern Nigeria provinces mapped the Muri province with it’s territorial control extended to Ibi, Wase and Shendam areas. The Muri Emirate has had a total of 12 Emirs inclusive of the Millennium ruler Alhaji Abbas Tafida Njidda. MODIBBO HAMMARUWA (1817 – 1833) Modibbo Hammaruwa, who was a younger brother to Lamido Buba Yero of Gombe and Lamido Hammadu of Tibati ( Now in Cameroun Republic), was the founder and first ruler who settled in Muri town situated on the Northern bank of River Benue presently in Karim-Lamido L.G.A of Taraba State. Lamido Hammaruwa had as at 1817 conquered the greater part of today’s Muri Emirate except Wase and Bakundi. He played great role during the Jihad of Usman Danfodio (1817 - 18) leading to the spread of Islam . He ruled for 17 years and died at Gombe in 1833.   LAMIDO IBRAHIM b. HAMMARUWA (1833 – 1848) Lamido Ibrahim B. Hammaruwa succeeded his father Lamido Hammaruwa and ruled from 1833 – 1848. At about 1836, he developed a psychological problem until 1848 when he became insane and was deposed and succeeded by his elder brother Hamman b. Hammaruwa.   LAMIDO HAMMAN b. HAMMARUWA (1848 – 1861) Lamido Hamman’s reign was characterized by internal wrangling involving his son Burba and his Nephew Hammadu, the son of the founder of Gassol, Bose. Lamido Hamman’s reign witnessed the conquering of Jibu by one of his Commanders called Kuso while Aliyu and Bula founded settlements in present day Bantaje and Ibi in 1885. He ruled for 13 years and was deposed in 1861 and later died at Mayo-Ranewo town of Ardo-kola L.G.A, Taraba State.   LAMIDO HAMMADU b. BOSE b. HAMMARUWA (1861 – 1869) Hammadu, the son of Bose who died in 1833 along with his father Modibbo Hammaruwa at Gombe, was popularly chosen from Gassol as successor to the deposed Lamido Hamman in 1861. He lived part of his time in Muri but moving to Gassol, Sendirde and Wuriyo towns where he appointed his sons to administer the towns, while his eldest son Umaru Sanda took charge of Muri at his absence. It was at this time that, Hammadu’s cousin and an old rival, Burba went further South wards and founded Bakundi. Lamido Hammadu b. Bose ruled for 8 years and died in 1869.   LAMIDO BURBA b. HAMMAN (1869 – 1873) On receiving the news on the death of Lamido Hammadu, the Caliphate in Sokoto directed that Abubakar, the son of Hammaruwa should be appointed Emir, but Muri people rejected him and instead appointed the rebellious Burba. Lamido Burba, the son of Lamido Hamman (1848-1861) was chosen from Bakundi by the Muri people. To consolidate his power, Burba had to grapple with the threat of Lamido Hammadu’s three sons (from Gassol, Sendirde and Wuryo) who had come to Muri town as claimants of the throne. However, four years later (1873), Gassol once again revolted and before Burba could punish them, he developed a mental problem and was deposed in 1873. When he regain soundness later, he then returned to his old home at Bakundi and remained as an independent ruler paying direct tribute to Sokoto before his death in 1892. Burba ruled Muri for four years (1869-1873)...   LAMIDO BAKARI b. HAMMARUWA (1873 – 1874) Bakari (Abubakar) who was earlier (1869) nominated by the Sultan of Sokoto but rejected by the Fulbe Muri in favor of Burba was appointed to succeed his Nephew in 1873 as the sixth Lamido of Muri. Lamido Bakari ruled for seven months and died. He was succeeded by his son, Muhammadu Nya in 1874.   LAMIDO MUHAMMADU NYA b. BAKARI (1874 – 1896) Muhammadu Nya popularly known as Lamido Jatau succeeded his father to become the seventh Emir of Muri in 1874. On assumption to the throne, he established friendliness with his deposed cousin Burba of Bakundi and together they combined forces to ensure proper control of Lamdo Hammadu’s sons in Gassol. Lamido Jatau was the one who signed the first treaty with the Europeans i.e. National African Company (Formerly Royal Niger Company) in 1893. apart from being the longest reigned Emir (22 years) of the 19th century Muri, Lamido Jatau had in early 1893 moved the Emirate headquarters to Jalingo (a town that had triumph) which was initially called Sangere (War Camp). Lamido Jatau died at Jalingo in June 1896 and was succeeded by his eldest son Hassan.   LAMIDO HASSAN b. MUHAMMADU NYA (1897 – 1903) After the death of Lamido Jatau, the Emirate witnessed minor succession problem in that, while the army and the Karaga “supported Hassan (eldest Son), the Fulbe preferred Hamman Mafindi. However, when the then Ajiyan Muri, Njidda, threw his weight behind Hassan , the problem was resolved and Hassan become the eight Lamido of Muri. Lamido Hassan then moved to Jalingo from Mutum-Biyu, where he had settled in 1895 and was formally investitured by the Sultan in September 1897. it was during his reign that Muri was declared (1901) part of the British Protectorate of Northern Nigeria after that of Sokoto (1900), by the British High Commissioner, Fredrick D. Lugard. Lamido Hassan died at Jalingo in 1903 and was succeeded by his brother Hamman Mafindi.   LAMIDO HAMMAN MAFINDI b. MUHAMMADU NYA (1903 – 1953) Hamman Mafindi who was the Tafidan Muri succeeded his brother Hassan b. Muhammadu Nya in 1903. After the death of Hassan, Mafindi moved to Jalingo from Mbanga where, he stayed after the political asylum granted him by Lamido Zubairu of Fombina (Yola). Traditional has it that he sat in silent prayers in the middle of the Mosque, conspicuous to all but conversing with none, until the council members became so anxious about the act and appointed him to the throne and was later installed at Lau. After about seven years (1903-1910) of ruler ship, Mafindi moved the Emirate headquarters from Lau to Mutum Biyu and appointed his eldest son, Madu as Danburam to oversee Jalingo District. Lamido Mafindi’s time saw the expansion of commercial activities and education (establishment of the First Primary School (Muhammadu Nya) in 1926), external relations, discipline and the reorganization and or creation of more districts e.g. the transfer of Sansani District to Gassol from Ibi Division in 1912. in addition to being the longest serving ruler (1903-53) of the 20th Century Muri, he was also the first to receive the C.B.E (1931) and C.M.G. (1946) awards for his notable services as recognized by the Colonial Masters.He died and was succeeded by his younger brother Muhammadu Tukur in 1953.   LAMIDO MUHAMMADU TUKUR b. NYA (1953 –1965) Tukur who was the district head of Wurkum (Karim Lamido) since inception, succeeded his brother, Mafindi, to become the tenth Emir in 1953. He introduced certain reforms and projects aimed at developing Muri. Lamido Tukur’s time saw the era of politics in which indigenes of Muri Secured representatives positions and appointments in the Regional and Central Government of Nigeria. He has worked towards building on what his predecessor has founded particularly in commerce and education. The first general hospital (now Federal Medical Centre), Jalingo was establish during his tutelage of Muri in 1963. LAMIDO UMARU ABBA b. MUHAMMADU TUKUR MFR (1965 – 1986) After the death of Tukur, his son who was then Parliamentary Minister in the Northern Nigeria Government of Sir Ahmadu Bello (Sardauna Sokoto) was appointed as the eleventh Emir of Muri in 1965. His time saw the establishment of more schools, hospitals, commercial activities, the creation of Local Government within the Emirate and upgrading of same to first class status in 1983, as well as the attainment for the first time of a governor by an indigene of Muri (Gov. A. Barde of Gongola State) in 1979. He was also awarded order of the Federal Republic (OFR) by the Federal Government of Nigeria for his notable services. Lamido Umaru Abba was deposed in 1986. LAMIDO ABBAS b. TAFIDA NJIDDA MAFINDI (1988 – DATE) Lamido Abbas succeeded his uncle, Lamido Umaru Abba Tukur, 2 years after the latter’s deposition (1986) by Governor Yohanna Madaki of then Gongola State. Lamido Abbas is then grandson of Lamido Mafindi (9th Emir of Muri), son of Lamido Nya (Jatau) the founder of Jalingo. Abbas Tafida’s reign is one of the most remarkable among those of his predecessors in that he had stayed on the throne without the official installation for 18 yeas (1988 – 2006). Lamido Abbas reign has so far witnessed great achievements in Muri e.g creation of Taraba State with Headquarters in Jalingo, creation of more L.G.As within Muri, establishment of more schools (e.g. Centre for Excellence, Jalingo), support for orphans and widows, expansion of commercial activities and agriculture as well as youth empowerment through vocational skills acquisition and scholarship awards program. He has also being educating the people of Muri on public health particularly HIV/AIDS and National program on immunization. Lamido Abbas Tafida was born in 1953 at Jalingo. He attended Mohammadu Nya Primary School, Jalingo from 1961 – 67 after which he proceeded to the famous Government College Keffi and later A.B.U. Zaria where he graduated with a Bachelors Degree in Business Admin. In 1977. He had also attended a Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management at the African Dev. Bank, Abidjan (1981 – 82) and Post Graduate Diploma in Chain Management at Green Beheld Smith and Co., London (1982 – 83). Alhaji Abbas Attended his National Service (NYSC) with the Kwara State Government (1977 – 1978) after which he joined Lever Brothers Nigeria. Ltd. (1978 - 1979). He also worked with the New Nigeria Development Company (NNDC) 1979 – 1983 and was appointed Managing Director of Nigeria Hotels (1983 – 1988) from where he was appointed the 12th Emir of Muri on 12th July, 1988. Lamido Abbas Tafida who is being installed (Thursday 25th January, 2006) is a man of principle and doughty philosophy that made him admired by his people. Above all, Lamido Abbas is well versed in Islamic Theology that made him place the fear of God first, in his dealings with people and in all endeavors.   PICTURES OF EMIRS AND CHIEFS The 3rd Class Chief of Muri Emirate The following are former district of Muri Emirate which were upgraded to Chiefdom s (3rd class) by the Governor Jolly T. Nyame reforms on Chieftaincy in Taraba State, 2006. Chiefdom 3rd Class Chief 1. Bakundi HRH Muhammadu Gidado Misa 2. Dakka HRH Yusuf Manga Ganwari 3. Gassol HRH Idris Yakubu Chiroma 4. Kwajji HRH Buba Nyala 5. Lau HRH Abubakar Umar Danburam 6. Mummuye HRH Ado Adamu Mazang 7. Mutum-Biyu HRH Suleiman Duna 8. Old Muri HRH Abdullahi Chiroma 9. Wurkum HRH Abubakar Haruna Karim FOR THE RECORDS 1.Zing Chiefdom which was formally under Muri Emirate has in 2006 been upgraded to 1st Class Chief and the name of the ruler is His Royal Highness Alhaji Abbas Ibrahim Sambo. 2. There are a total of 7 LGAs under today’s Muri Emirate viz:-Ardo-kola, Bali, Gassol, Jalingo, Karim-lamido,. Lau and Yorro LGAs. 3. Alhaji Waziri Ibrahim Malle was the Wakilin Muri (1986-1988) after the deposition of lamido Umaru Abba Tukur. 4. His Highness Alh. Nuhu Moh’d Bello (Sarkin Sansani – Gassol) and Hammadu Doubeli (Jauro Doubeli – Lau) are the oldest serving village heads having being appointed by Lamido Muhammadu Mafindi in 1952. 5. The renown Professor of History, Abubakar Sa’ad who is the first Professor, Ambassador, in Muri, and is the son of former Wazirin Muri (Waziri Sa’adu Abubakar). He is also the author of Lamibe of Fombina. 6. The resolution of Taraba State Government to officially install (staff of office) His Royal Highness Alhaji Abbas Njidda Tafida was pronounced during a an Id-el-ftr Sallah Durba at Kofar-Bai on 31st Dec., 2006. 7. The first Executive Governor of Taraba State (Jolly T. Nyame) is a native of Muri Emirate. 8. Lamido Abbas Njidda Tafida was appointed on 12th July,1988 by Governor David Jang (Military) of the defunct Gongola state. 9. The late Lamido Umaru Abba Tukur was the first person to be appointed a cabinet Minister in the history of Muri Emirate. 10. The first formal school in Muri is the Mohammadu Nya Primary School, Jalingo (founded 1926). 11. The first females to be enrolled in Western Schooling system in Muri was Hajiya Hauwa Umar Yerima, Titi Makenzi, Hajiya Hurera Danburam and Hajiya Adamajam Yerima. They were enrolled at Mohammadu Nya Primary School Jalingo in 1940. >> FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND ADVISE: Please contact the AUTHOR on njiddamisa@mail.com  
    May 27, 2016 1999
  • 27 Aug 2016
      I found this document online about fulfulde ajami  i had to share it this is topic i enjoy reading about. Alphabet and Orthography StatementFor Fulfulde [FUB] Ajamiya(Found in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Central African Republic)By Scott Clark, MASILB.P. 1299Yaoundé, Cameroon2007   Alphabet and Orthography Statement For Fulfulde [FUB] AjamiyaBy Scott Clark, M.A.Language: Fulfulde [Ethnologue code: FUB](Spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Central African Republic)Introduction:The alphabet described in this document is the result of many years of research, which began in the early 1960’s by Dr. Kristian Skulberg of Norway (in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon). Ron Nelson and the Sawtu Linjiila staff (a Fulfulde media and radio organization) continued his work in the 1980’s. By 1990, the orthography was well established. The orthography in the present statement has not significantly changed since that time. In 1998, at the JCMWA/MICCAO conference in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon; over 100 representatives from 14 West African countries agreed that this orthography would be a good standard for writing the Fulfulde language with Arabic script (called Ajamiya).One of the first Roman script orthographies for Fulfulde was developed by F.W. Taylor in the 1930’s (see his dictionary, 1932). In 1966, a unified Roman script orthography was recommended by UNESCO at the ‘Meeting of Experts for the Unification of Alphabets of the National Languages’ held atBamako, Mali. The orthography proposed in this paper is based on the phonology statement forAdamawa Fulfulde [FUB] found in Stennis, 1967.In 2002 a computer program was developed by Mark Rogalski and myself to “transliterate” the Roman script Fulfulde into Ajamiya script Fulfulde. It is still not 100% accurate and needs to be proofread for mistakes. The following Alphabet and Orthography Statement is presented in order to make the most accurate transliteration possible while maintaining as much as possible indigenous  Ajamiya conventions of the [FUB] Fulfulde dialect (abbreviations are on page 18).The Consonants:(The vowels will be introduced on page 14)Arabic alphabetical order (Abjadi) is adopted here showing the Ajamiya grapheme, Fulfulde name andphoneme1: أ -aliifi [a:] ب,bee [a], ت -tee [t]  ث, camamlu [],  ج ,jiimi [dz]  ح  -haa baaluul [h], خha to'b'bungol,د -deeli [c], - ذ zaali [] ر ,arre [], ز -zayra [y], س -siini [s], ش -ciini [s]or[]or[ts],  ص- saadi [s], -  ض baadi [d],  ظ zaadi [], ع –ayni kebuwal [],غangani kebuwal , ف fee [fe],  ق -gaafu [],  ك -keefu [k], ل- laamu [l],  م-miimi [m],  ن-nuunu][n],- ھhakabeere [h],  و-waawu [w],  ي-yah [j],  ء-hamaza [] -- ِIn addition, five Non-Arabic phonemes are found in Fulfulde; the symbols chosen to represent these sounds are: بء bee mod'u,يءyah mod'u,ف.pee,نغ nunu e angani. These  five characters are still under discussion. However, they have been used with good understanding for the lasttwenty years in Cameroon, with the exception of the p. The p has been recently adopted after a thoroughsearch of the contemporary use of Ajamiya in Northern Cameroon (see Orthography Report of SpecialLetters, March 2006 by myself). Several Arabic sounds and their corresponding consonants are NOT used in1See Appendix 1 for the chart of these letters in Abajada order (Warsh Qur’anic tradition). See Appendix 2 for the SummaryChart that is in Arabic Alphabetic order (Abjadi order). MORE information
    1592 Posted by Mahammad A. Tafida
  •   I found this document online about fulfulde ajami  i had to share it this is topic i enjoy reading about. Alphabet and Orthography StatementFor Fulfulde [FUB] Ajamiya(Found in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Central African Republic)By Scott Clark, MASILB.P. 1299Yaoundé, Cameroon2007   Alphabet and Orthography Statement For Fulfulde [FUB] AjamiyaBy Scott Clark, M.A.Language: Fulfulde [Ethnologue code: FUB](Spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Central African Republic)Introduction:The alphabet described in this document is the result of many years of research, which began in the early 1960’s by Dr. Kristian Skulberg of Norway (in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon). Ron Nelson and the Sawtu Linjiila staff (a Fulfulde media and radio organization) continued his work in the 1980’s. By 1990, the orthography was well established. The orthography in the present statement has not significantly changed since that time. In 1998, at the JCMWA/MICCAO conference in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon; over 100 representatives from 14 West African countries agreed that this orthography would be a good standard for writing the Fulfulde language with Arabic script (called Ajamiya).One of the first Roman script orthographies for Fulfulde was developed by F.W. Taylor in the 1930’s (see his dictionary, 1932). In 1966, a unified Roman script orthography was recommended by UNESCO at the ‘Meeting of Experts for the Unification of Alphabets of the National Languages’ held atBamako, Mali. The orthography proposed in this paper is based on the phonology statement forAdamawa Fulfulde [FUB] found in Stennis, 1967.In 2002 a computer program was developed by Mark Rogalski and myself to “transliterate” the Roman script Fulfulde into Ajamiya script Fulfulde. It is still not 100% accurate and needs to be proofread for mistakes. The following Alphabet and Orthography Statement is presented in order to make the most accurate transliteration possible while maintaining as much as possible indigenous  Ajamiya conventions of the [FUB] Fulfulde dialect (abbreviations are on page 18).The Consonants:(The vowels will be introduced on page 14)Arabic alphabetical order (Abjadi) is adopted here showing the Ajamiya grapheme, Fulfulde name andphoneme1: أ -aliifi [a:] ب,bee [a], ت -tee [t]  ث, camamlu [],  ج ,jiimi [dz]  ح  -haa baaluul [h], خha to'b'bungol,د -deeli [c], - ذ zaali [] ر ,arre [], ز -zayra [y], س -siini [s], ش -ciini [s]or[]or[ts],  ص- saadi [s], -  ض baadi [d],  ظ zaadi [], ع –ayni kebuwal [],غangani kebuwal , ف fee [fe],  ق -gaafu [],  ك -keefu [k], ل- laamu [l],  م-miimi [m],  ن-nuunu][n],- ھhakabeere [h],  و-waawu [w],  ي-yah [j],  ء-hamaza [] -- ِIn addition, five Non-Arabic phonemes are found in Fulfulde; the symbols chosen to represent these sounds are: بء bee mod'u,يءyah mod'u,ف.pee,نغ nunu e angani. These  five characters are still under discussion. However, they have been used with good understanding for the lasttwenty years in Cameroon, with the exception of the p. The p has been recently adopted after a thoroughsearch of the contemporary use of Ajamiya in Northern Cameroon (see Orthography Report of SpecialLetters, March 2006 by myself). Several Arabic sounds and their corresponding consonants are NOT used in1See Appendix 1 for the chart of these letters in Abajada order (Warsh Qur’anic tradition). See Appendix 2 for the SummaryChart that is in Arabic Alphabetic order (Abjadi order). MORE information
    Aug 27, 2016 1592