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  • Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12;22(12):2165-2167 Authors: Fafetine JM, Coetzee P, Mubemba B, Nhambirre O, Neves L, Coetzer JA, Venter EH Abstract In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID: 27869589 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Distribution of a Chimpanzee Social Custom Is Explained by Matrilineal Relationship Rather Than Conformity.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Distribution of a Chimpanzee Social Custom Is Explained by Matrilineal Relationship Rather Than Conformity. Curr Biol. 2016 Nov 21;26(22):3033-3037 Authors: Wrangham RW, Koops K, Machanda ZP, Worthington S, Bernard AB, Brazeau NF, Donovan R, Rosen J, Wilke C, Otali E, Muller MN Abstract High-arm grooming is a form of chimpanzee grooming in which two individuals mutually groom while each raising one arm. Palm-to-palm clasping (PPC) is a distinct style of high-arm grooming in which the grooming partners clasp each other's raised palms. In wild communities, samples of at least 100 observed dyads grooming with raised hands showed PPC frequencies varying from <5% (M group, Mahale) to >30% dyads grooming (Kanyawara, Kibale), and in a large free-ranging sanctuary group, the frequency reached >80% dyads (group 1, Chimfunshi) [1, 2]. Because between-community differences in frequency of PPC apparently result from social learning, are stable across generations, and last for at least 9 years, they are thought to be cultural, but the mechanism of transmission is unknown [2]. Here, we examine factors responsible for individual variation in PPC frequency within a single wild community. We found that in the Kanyawara community (Kibale, Uganda), adults of both sexes varied widely in their PPC frequency (from <10% to >50%) and did not converge on a central group tendency. However, frequencies of PPC were highly consistent within matrilines, indicating that individuals maintained lifelong fidelity to the grooming style of their mothers. Matrilineal inheritance of socially learned behaviors has previously been reported for tool use in chimpanzees [3] and in the vocal and feeding behavior of cetaceans [4, 5]. Our evidence indicates that matrilineal inheritance can be sufficiently strong in nonhuman primates to account for long-term differences in community traditions. PMID: 27839974 ...

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  • Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 11;22(11):1961-1962 Authors: Eberhard ML, Cleveland CA, Zirimwabagabo H, Yabsley MJ, Ouakou PT, Ruiz-Tiben E Abstract A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts. PMID: 27560598 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • WRN Mutation Update: Mutation Spectrum, Patient Registries, and Translational Prospects.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles WRN Mutation Update: Mutation Spectrum, Patient Registries, and Translational Prospects. Hum Mutat. 2017 Jan;38(1):7-15 Authors: Yokote K, Chanprasert S, Lee L, Eirich K, Takemoto M, Watanabe A, Koizumi N, Lessel D, Mori T, Hisama FM, Ladd PD, Angle B, Baris H, Cefle K, Palanduz S, Ozturk S, Chateau A, Deguchi K, Easwar TK, Federico A, Fox A, Grebe TA, Hay B, Nampoothiri S, Seiter K, Streeten E, Piña-Aguilar RE, Poke G, Poot M, Posmyk R, Martin GM, Kubisch C, Schindler D, Oshima J Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of adult onset phenotypes consistent with an acceleration of intrinsic biological aging. It is caused by pathogenic variants in the WRN gene, which encodes a multifunctional nuclear protein with exonuclease and helicase activities. WRN protein is thought to be involved in optimization of various aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair, recombination, replication, and transcription. In this update, we summarize a total of 83 different WRN mutations, including eight previously unpublished mutations identified by the International Registry of Werner Syndrome (Seattle, WA) and the Japanese Werner Consortium (Chiba, Japan), as well as 75 mutations already reported in the literature. The Seattle International Registry recruits patients from all over the world to investigate genetic causes of a wide variety of progeroid syndromes in order to contribute to the knowledge of basic mechanisms of human aging. Given the unusually high prevalence of WS patients and heterozygous carriers in Japan, the major goal of the Japanese Consortium is to develop effective therapies and to establish management guidelines for WS patients in Japan and elsewhere. This review will also discuss potential translational approaches to this disorder, including those currently under investigation. PMID: 27667302 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014-2015.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12;22(12):2160-2164 Authors: Njeru J, Melzer F, Wareth G, El-Adawy H, Henning K, Pletz MW, Heller R, Kariuki S, Fèvre E, Neubauer H Abstract During 2014-2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk. PMID: 27662463 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12;22(12):2087-2096 Authors: Weyer CT, Grewar JD, Burger P, Rossouw E, Lourens C, Joone C, le Grange M, Coetzee P, Venter E, Martin DP, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ Abstract African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS. PMID: 27442883 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008-2011.

    Posted 2018-01-13 11:00:44 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12;22(12):2054-2062 Authors: Williams R, Malherbe J, Weepener H, Majiwa P, Swanepoel R Abstract Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic vectorborne viral disease, causes loss of life among humans and livestock and an adverse effect on the economy of affected countries. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect livestock; however, during protracted interepidemic periods, farmers discontinue vaccination, which leads to loss of herd immunity and heavy losses of livestock when subsequent outbreaks occur. Retrospective analysis of the 2008-2011 RVF epidemics in South Africa revealed a pattern of continuous and widespread seasonal rainfall causing substantial soil saturation followed by explicit rainfall events that flooded dambos (seasonally flooded depressions), triggering outbreaks of disease. Incorporation of rainfall and soil saturation data into a prediction model for major outbreaks of RVF resulted in the correctly identified risk in nearly 90% of instances at least 1 month before outbreaks occurred; all indications are that irrigation is of major importance in the remaining 10% of outbreaks. PMID: 27403563 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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