بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
2017-03-28 23:29:29 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
[Professional stressors and common mental health disorders: Causal links?]
Encephale. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: Nicolas C, Chawky N, Jourdan-Ionescu C, Drouin MS, Page C, Houlfort N, Beauchamp G, Séguin M
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes.
METHOD: The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we ...
Cabergoline-related impulse control disorder in an adolescent with a giant prolactinoma.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Mar 27;:
Authors: Bulwer C, Conn R, Shankar A, Ferrau F, Kapur S, Ederies A, Korbonits M, Spoudeas HA
Giant prolactinomas, rare in children, can have devastating endocrine, neurological and visual sequelae. Dopamine agonists (DA) are effective first-line therapy with few side-effects at doses usually used for prolactinoma treatment(1) , but higher-dose therapy for Parkinson's disease has well-recognized associations with impulse control disorders (ICD) including pathological gambling, impulsive eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality. Such associations are not well recognized with prolactinomas; to our knowledge this is the first reported case of hypersexuality in an adolescent receiving cabergoline for a giant prolactinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28346715 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
[Is nutritional obesity a substance use disorder?]
Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2016 Dec;141(25):1835-1839
Authors: Albayrak Ö, de Zwaan M
Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experiments, that build the framework upon which food addiction is being investigated and to critically discuss the concept of food addiction.
PMID: 27975356 [PubMed - indexed for ...
Temporal Discounting and the Tendency to Delay Gratification across the Eating Disorder Spectrum.
Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017 Mar 27;:
Authors: Bartholdy S, Rennalls S, Danby H, Jacques C, Campbell IC, Schmidt U, O'Daly OG
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have been associated with poorer reward-related inhibitory control, reflected by a reduced tendency to delay gratification. The opposite has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences have not been directly compared across eating disorders (EDs). This study investigated self-reported (Delaying Gratification Inventory) and task-based (temporal discounting) inhibitory control in 66 women with an ED and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Poorer task-based inhibitory control was observed in the BN compared with the AN group and poorer self-reported inhibitory control in the BN and in the BED groups compared with the AN and the HC groups, suggesting that reward-related inhibitory control varies across EDs. Symptom severity correlated with poorer self-reported (but not task-based) inhibitory control across the EDs. These data provide some support for transdiagnostic mechanisms and highlight the importance of addressing perceived loss of control in the treatment of EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
PMID: 28345215 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Mar 24;14(1):38
Authors: Lee K, Guy A, Dale J, Wolke D
BACKGROUND: Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator.
METHOD: A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity).
RESULTS: Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement ...