بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
2017-03-25 16:59:11 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
Comparative effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy for heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococcal central-line-associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Mar 03;:
Authors: Blanchard AC, Fortin E, Laferrière C, Goyer I, Moussa A, Autmizguine J, Quach C
Objectives: Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy. CLABSI duration, early and late recurrence and in-hospital mortality were compared using propensity score-adjusted proportional hazards and logistic regression models.
Results: Of 89 infants with hVICoNS CLABSI, 33 (37.1%) treated with linezolid were compared with 56 (62.9%) treated with vancomycin. The median duration of CLABSI was 5 (range 1-12) versus 4 days (range 0-14) ( P = 0.11), early recurrences were 3.0% versus 7.1% ( P = 0.42), late recurrences 0% versus 14.3% ( P = 0.02) and mortality 27.3% versus 28.6% ( P = 0.90), when treated with linezolid versus vancomycin, respectively. When adjusting using a continuous propensity score, linezolid had an HR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27) for CLABSI duration, an OR of 0.23 (95% CI 0.02-2.56) for early recurrence and an OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.67) for ...
Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017 Mar 23;:
Authors: Obiegala A, Albrecht C, Dafalla M, Drewes S, Oltersdorf C, Turni H, Imholt C, Jacob J, Wagner-Wiening C, Ulrich RG, Pfeffer M
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene.
RESULTS: Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank ...
Monkeypox virus host factor screen in haploid cells identifies essential role of GARP complex in extracellular virus formation.
J Virol. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: Realegeno S, Puschnik AS, Kumar A, Goldsmith C, Burgado J, Sambhara S, Olson VA, Carroll D, Damon I, Hirata T, Kinoshita T, Carette JE, Satheshkumar PS
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis. We validated the role of a set of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes during infection, VPS51-54, which comprise the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The GARP complex is a tethering complex involved in retrograde transport of endosomes to the trans-Golgi apparatus. Our data demonstrate that VPS52 and VPS54 were dispensable for mature virus (MV) production but were required for extracellular virus (EV) formation. For comparison, a known antiviral compound, ST-246, was used in our experiments demonstrating that EV titers in VPS52 and VPS54 knockout (KO) cells were comparable to levels exhibited by ST-246 treated wildtype cells. Confocal microscopy was used to examine actin tail formation, one of the viral egress mechanisms for cell-to-cell dissemination, and revealed an absence of actin tails in VPS52KO or VPS54KO infected cells. Further evaluation of these cells by electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in wrapped viruses (WV) compared to wild type control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the role of ...
Ebolaviruses associated with differential pathogenicity induce distinct host responses in human macrophages.
J Virol. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: Olejnik J, Forero A, Deflubé LR, Hume AJ, Manhart WA, Nishida A, Marzi A, Katze MG, Ebihara H, Rasmussen AL, Mühlberger E
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). As expected, EBOV infection led to a profound proinflammatory response, including strong induction of type I and type III IFNs. In contrast, RESTV-infected macrophages remained surprisingly silent. Early activation of IRF3 and NFκB was observed in EBOV-infected, but not in RESTV-infected MDMs. In concordance with previous results, MDMs treated with inactivated EBOV and Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) induced NFκB activation mediated by TLR4 in a glycoprotein (GP)-dependent manner. This was not the case in cells exposed to live RESTV, inactivated RESTV, or VLPs containing RESTV GP, indicating that RESTV GP does not trigger TLR4 signaling. Our results suggest that the lack of immune activation in RESTV-infected MDMs contributes to lower pathogenicity by preventing the cytokine storm observed in EBOV infection. We further demonstrate that inhibition of TLR4 signaling abolishes EBOV GP-mediated NFκB activation. This finding indicates that limiting the excessive TLR4-mediated proinflammatory response in EBOV ...
Adaptive Immune Responses to Zika Virus Are Important for Controlling Virus Infection and Preventing Infection in Brain and Testes.
J Immunol. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: Winkler CW, Myers LM, Woods TA, Messer RJ, Carmody AB, McNally KL, Scott DP, Hasenkrug KJ, Best SM, Peterson KE
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models. Thus, as we show in this article, although wild-type C57BL/6 mice mount cell-mediated and humoral adaptive immune responses to ZIKV, these responses were not required to prevent disease. However, when the type I IFN response of mice was suppressed, then the adaptive immune responses became critical. For example, when type I IFN signaling was blocked by Abs in Rag1(-/-) mice, the mice showed dramatic weight loss and ZIKV infection in the brain and testes. This phenotype was not observed in Ig-treated Rag1(-/-) mice or wild-type mice treated with anti-type I IFNR alone. Furthermore, we found that the CD8(+) T cell responses of pregnant mice to ZIKV infection were diminished compared with nonpregnant mice. It is possible that diminished cell-mediated immunity during pregnancy could increase virus spread to the fetus. These results demonstrate an important role for the adaptive immune response in the control of ZIKV infection and imply that vaccination may prevent ZIKV-related disease, particularly when the type I IFN response is suppressed as it is in humans.