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Pubmed:Emerg. Infect. Dise. »

  • Enteric Parasites in Arctic Communities: Tip of the Iceberg?

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:00:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Enteric Parasites in Arctic Communities: Tip of the Iceberg? Trends Parasitol. 2016 Nov;32(11):834-838 Authors: Yansouni CP, Pernica JM, Goldfarb D Abstract Human enteric parasitoses, particularly from Cryptosporidium, were recently recognized as being highly prevalent in parts of the Arctic. This is important because cryptosporidiosis has been repeatedly associated with impaired growth and development and may synergize with other challenges faced by children in remote Arctic communities, such as overcrowding and food insecurity. PMID: 27593337 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • An atypical presentation of a re-emerging disease.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:00:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles An atypical presentation of a re-emerging disease. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2017 Jan;7(1):49-52 Authors: Hunter M, Brine P Abstract Often referred to as 'The Great Mimicker', syphilis infections have been on the rise since 2000 including cases of primary and secondary syphilis where 19,999 were reported in the USA in 2014. ​​The increase in cases has led the USPSTF to recommend screening for syphilis infection in persons who are at increased risk of infection. ​​Changes in screening and re-emergence of the disease necessitates review of the multitude of circumstances a patient can present for care. Immunocompetent patients begin to show classic symptoms within 10-90 days following infection with the spirochete. In the immunocompromised patient, the presenting symptoms are often atypical and more complex. With the rise in HIV infections, syphilitic infections have become increasingly common worldwide and several atypical presentations have been observed. ​​The following case is an atypical presentation of syphilis involving both central and peripheral nervous system findings in a patient without significant medical history. PMID: 28634527 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Cellular Immune Responses to Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine SA14-14-2 in Adults in a JE/Dengue Co-Endemic Area.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:00:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Cellular Immune Responses to Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine SA14-14-2 in Adults in a JE/Dengue Co-Endemic Area. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jan;11(1):e0005263 Authors: Turtle L, Tatullo F, Bali T, Ravi V, Soni M, Chan S, Chib S, Venkataswamy MM, Fadnis P, Yaïch M, Fernandez S, Klenerman P, Satchidanandam V, Solomon T Abstract BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) causes severe epidemic encephalitis across Asia, for which the live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 is being used increasingly. JEV is a flavivirus, and is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), which is co-endemic in many parts of Asia, with clinically relevant interactions. There is no information on the human T cell response to SA14-14-2, or whether responses to SA14-14-2 cross-react with DENV. We used live attenuated JE vaccine SA14-14-2 as a model for studying T cell responses to JEV infection in adults, and to determine whether these T cell responses are cross-reactive with DENV, and other flaviviruses. METHODS: We conducted a single arm, open label clinical trial (registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01656200) to study T cell responses to SA14-14-2 in adults in South India, an area endemic for JE and dengue. RESULTS: Ten out of 16 (62.5%) participants seroconverted to JEV SA14-14-2, and geometric mean neutralising antibody (NAb) titre was 18.5. Proliferation responses were commonly present before vaccination in the absence of NAb, indicating a likely high degree of previous flavivirus exposure. Thirteen of 15 (87%) participants made T cell interferon-gamma (IFNγ) responses against JEV proteins. In four subjects tested, at least some T cell epitopes mapped cross-reacted with DENV and other flaviviruses. CONCLUSIONS: JEV SA14-14-2 was more immunogenic for T cell IFNγ than for NAb in adults in this JE/DENV co-endemic area. The proliferation positive, NAb negative combination may ...

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  • Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Ticks and Serological and Clinical Outcomes in Tick-Bitten Individuals in Sweden and on the Åland Islands.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:00:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Ticks and Serological and Clinical Outcomes in Tick-Bitten Individuals in Sweden and on the Åland Islands. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166653 Authors: Lindblom A, Wallménius K, Sjöwall J, Fryland L, Wilhelmsson P, Lindgren PE, Forsberg P, Nilsson K Abstract Tick-transmitted diseases are an emerging health problem, and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector for Borrelia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus and most of the spotted fever Rickettsiae in Europe. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of rickettsial infection in the southernmost and south central parts of Sweden and the Åland Islands in Finland, the risk of infection in humans and its correlation with a bite of a Rickettsia-infected tick, the self-reported symptoms of rickettsial disease, and the prevalence of co-infection between Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Persons with a recent tick bite were enrolled through public media and asked to answer a questionnaire, provide a blood sample and bring detached ticks at enlistment and at follow-up three months later. Blood samples were previously analysed for Borrelia spp. antibodies and, for this report, analysed for antibodies to Rickettsia spp. by immunofluorescence and in 16 cases also using Western Blot. Ninety-six (44.0%) of the 218 participants were seropositive for IgG antibodies to Rickettsia spp. Forty (18.3%) of the seropositive participants had increased titres at the follow-up, indicating recent/current infection, while four (1.8%) had titres indicating probable recent/current infection (≥1:256). Of 472 ticks, 39 (8.3%) were Rickettsia sp. positive. Five (31.3%) of 16 participants bitten by a Rickettsia-infected tick seroconverted. Experience of the self-reported symptoms nausea (p = 0.006) and radiating pain (p = 0.041) was more common among those with recent, current or probable infection compared to those who ...

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  • Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:00:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study? PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165969 Authors: Boëte C, Morand S Abstract Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens. Thus, we conducted an online survey targeting researchers who spend a part of their research activity studying bats. Our aim was to determine (1) how they perceive their object of study, (2) how they perceive the representation of bats in the media and by the general population, (3) how they protect themselves against pathogen infections during their research practices, and (4) their perceptions of the causes underlying the decline in bat populations worldwide. From the 587 completed responses (response rate of 28%) having a worldwide distribution, the heterogeneity of the scientists' perception of their own object of study was highlighted. In the majority of cases, this depended on the type of research they conducted (i.e. laboratory versus field studies) as well as their research speciality. Our study revealed a high level of personal protection equipment being utilised against pathogens during scientific practices, although the role bats play as reservoirs for a number of emerging pathogens remains poorly known. Our results also disclosed the unanimity among specialists in attributing a direct role for humans in the global decline of bat populations, mainly via environmental change, deforestation, and ...

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