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  • Tuberculosis in Rhinoceros: An Underrecognized Threat?

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Tuberculosis in Rhinoceros: An Underrecognized Threat? Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Aug;64(4):1071-1078 Authors: Miller M, Michel A, van Helden P, Buss P Abstract Historical evidence of tuberculosis (TB) affecting primarily captive rhinoceroses dates back almost two centuries. Although the causative Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) species has not been determined in many cases, especially for those that occurred before bacterial culture techniques were available, the spectrum of documented reports illustrates the importance of TB as cause of morbidity and mortality in different rhinoceros species across continents. In more recent years, sporadic suspected or confirmed cases of TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) have been reported in semi-free or free-ranging rhinoceroses in South Africa. However, the true risk TB may pose to the health and conservation of rhinoceros populations in the country's large conservation areas where M. bovis is endemic, which is unknown. Underlying the current knowledge gap is the lack of diagnostic tools available to detect infection in living animals. As documented in other wildlife species, TB could establish itself in a rhinoceros population but remain unrecognized for decades with detrimental implications for wildlife conservation at large and should such animals be moved to uninfected areas or facilities. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding TB in rhinoceros including critical gaps that need to be addressed to effectively assess the threat that this disease may present to rhinoceros. PMID: 26996520 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Benin: Persistence of a Single Virus Genotype in the Country for Over 42 Years.

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Benin: Persistence of a Single Virus Genotype in the Country for Over 42 Years. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Aug;64(4):1037-1044 Authors: Adombi CM, Waqas A, Dundon WG, Li S, Daojin Y, Kakpo L, Aplogan GL, Diop M, Lo MM, Silber R, Loitsch A, Diallo A Abstract Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal disease affecting sheep and goats. Currently, it is endemic in Africa, the Middle and Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Understanding the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PPR virus (PPRV) can assist in the control of the transboundary spread of this economically important disease. We isolated PPRV from pathological and swab samples collected 42 years apart (1969 and 2011) in Benin, West Africa, and sequenced the full genome of two isolates (Benin/B1/1969 and Benin/10/2011). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the characterized isolates clustered within viral lineage II and that the 2011 isolates fell into two distinct subgroups. Comparison of the full genome sequences revealed a 95.3% identity at the nucleotide level, while at the protein level, the matrix protein was the most conserved between the two viruses with an identity of 99.7% and only one amino acid substitution over the 42-year sampling period. An analysis of specific amino acid residues of known or putative function did not identify any significant changes between the two viruses. A molecular clock analysis of complete PPRV genomes revealed that the lineage II viruses sampled here arose in the early 1960s and that these viruses have likely persisted in Benin since this time. PMID: 26801518 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease Impact on Smallholders - What Do We Know, What Don't We Know and How Can We Find Out More?

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Foot-and-Mouth Disease Impact on Smallholders - What Do We Know, What Don't We Know and How Can We Find Out More? Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Aug;64(4):1079-1094 Authors: Knight-Jones TJD, McLaws M, Rushton J Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) endemic regions contain three-quarters of the world's FMD susceptible livestock and most of the world's poor livestock keepers. Yet FMD impact on smallholders in these regions is poorly understood. Diseases of low mortality can exert a large impact if incidence is high. Modelling and field studies commonly find high FMD incidence in endemic countries. Sero-surveys typically find a third of young cattle are sero-positive, however, the proportion of sero-positive animals that developed disease, and resulting impact, are unknown. The few smallholder FMD impact studies that have been performed assessed different aspects of impact, using different approaches. They find that FMD impact can be high (>10% of annual household income). However, impact is highly variable, being a function of FMD incidence and dependency on activities affected by FMD. FMD restricts investment in productive but less FMD-resilient farming methods, however, other barriers to efficient production may exist, reducing the benefits of FMD control. Applying control measures is costly and can have wide-reaching negative impacts; veterinary-cordon-fences may damage wildlife populations, and livestock movement restrictions and trade bans damage farmer profits and the wider economy. When control measures are ineffective, farmers, society and wildlife may experience the burden of control without reducing disease burden. Foot-and-mouth disease control has benefitted smallholders in South America and elsewhere. Success takes decades of regional cooperation with effective veterinary services and widespread farmer participation. However, both the likelihood of success and the full cost of control ...

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  • Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda.

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28:1 Authors: Lagoro DK, Arony DA Abstract Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. These observations perhaps provide further, the unique explanation for the association between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus. Many clinical and epidemiological studies had shown a significant correlation between NS and infestation with a nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes a disease, Onchocerciasis, some of which when left untreated can develop visual defect ("River Blindness"). While these studies conducted in Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan indicate a statistically significant association with (OV infection (using positive skin snips), we observe that (OV is generally endemic in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America and that to date, no NS cases have been recorded in those regions. This letter to the Editor is to provide additional information on the current view about the relationship between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus as seen in Northern Uganda. PMID: 29138647 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Rationale and support for a One Health program for canine vaccination as the most cost-effective means of controlling zoonotic rabies in endemic settings.

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Rationale and support for a One Health program for canine vaccination as the most cost-effective means of controlling zoonotic rabies in endemic settings. Vaccine. 2017 Mar 23;35(13):1668-1674 Authors: Lavan RP, King AI, Sutton DJ, Tunceli K Abstract Although dog vaccination has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate rabies in humans, during meetings there are often calls for further pilot studies. The assembled data proves that a widespread approach is now required. While zoonotic rabies has a minimal presence in developed nations, it is endemic throughout most of Asia and Africa, where it is considered to be a neglected tropical disease. In these areas, rabies causes an estimated annual mortality of at least 55,000 human deaths. Worldwide rabid dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies exposures. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) advocate a collaborative One Health approach involving human public health and veterinary agencies, with mass canine vaccination programs in endemic areas being the mainstay of strategies to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies. While post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing deaths in people exposed to rabies, it is comparatively expensive and has little impact on the canine reservoir that is the primary source of zoonotic rabies. Indiscriminate culling of the dog population is expensive and there is little evidence that it is effective in controlling rabies in non-island locations. Mass canine vaccination programs using a One Health framework that achieves a minimum 70% vaccination coverage during annual campaigns have proven to be cost-effective in controlling zoonotic rabies in endemic, resource-poor regions. Case studies, such as in Tanzania and Bhutan, illustrate how an approach based on mass canine rabies ...

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  • Predicting the spatial distribution of Biomphalaria straminea, a potential intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, in China.

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Predicting the spatial distribution of Biomphalaria straminea, a potential intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, in China. Geospat Health. 2016 Nov 29;11(3):453 Authors: Habib MR, Guo YH, Lv S, Gu WB, Li XH, Zhou XN Abstract Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases impacting human health in the tropics and sub-tropics. The geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni, the most widespread species, includes areas in Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. Snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate host for S. mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea is not indigenous in China but was accidentally introduced to Hong Kong from South America and has spread to other habitats in the southern parts of the country. This species is known for its great dispersal capacity that highlights the importance of the snail as a potential host for S. mansoni in China. In this connection, although no such infection has been recorded in the field so far, the continuous expansion of China's projects in endemic areas of Africa and import of the infection via returning workers or visitors deserve attention. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of B. straminea in China. Snail occurrence data were assembled and investigated using MaxEnt software, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce a predictive risk map. Of the environmental variables tested, the precipitation of warmest quarter was the most contribution factor for snail's spatial distribution. Risk areas were found in southeastern China and it is expected that they will guide policies and control programmes to potential areas area of snail abundance and used for spatial targeting of control interventions for this invasive species. PMID: 27903067 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Predominance and geo-mapping of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry sectors in Egypt.

    Posted 2017-12-12 11:00:37 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Predominance and geo-mapping of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry sectors in Egypt. Geospat Health. 2016 Nov 28;11(3):492 Authors: Arafa A, El-Masry I, Khoulosy S, Hassan MK, Soliman M, Fasanmi OG, Fasina FO, Dauphin G, Lubroth J, Jobre YM Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt. The H5N1 virus persists in the Egyptian poultry displaying a seasonal pattern with peak prevalence between January and March. There was no specific geographic pattern, but chickens and ducks were more affected. However, relatively higher disease incidences were recorded in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic studies of the haemagglutinin gene sequences of H5N1 viruses indicated that multiple clusters circulated between 2006 and 2015, with significant deviations in circulation. Epidemiological dynamics of HPAI has changed with the origins of majority of outbreaks shifted to household poultry. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 in poultry with recurrent and sporadic infections in humans can influence virus evolution spatio-temporally. Household poultry plays significant roles in the H5N1 virus transmission to poultry and humans, but the role of commercial poultry needs further clarifications. While poultry trading supports the persistence ...

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