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  • Genetic differentiation of the G6/7 cluster of Echinococcus canadensis based on mitochondrial marker genes.

    Posted 2018-05-19 10:01:07 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Genetic differentiation of the G6/7 cluster of Echinococcus canadensis based on mitochondrial marker genes. Int J Parasitol. 2017 Dec;47(14):923-931 Authors: Addy F, Wassermann M, Kagendo D, Ebi D, Zeyhle E, Elmahdi IE, Umhang G, Casulli A, Harandi MF, Aschenborn O, Kern P, Mackenstedt U, Romig T Abstract Among the genotype/species causing cystic echinococcosis, the taxonomic status of Echinococcus canadensis is only partially resolved. Within E. canadensis, four genotypes (G6, G7, G8 and G10) have been described based on short mitochondrial sequences, of which G6 and G7 (the 'camel' and the 'pig' strain, respectively) are closely related and variously regarded as microvariants of a single strain G6/7. Globally, this G6/7 cluster is the second most important agent of human cystic echinococcosis and is the predominant Echinococcus taxon in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. To add data on the internal structure and the geographical distribution of this cluster, we analysed diversity and population structure of 296 isolates of E. canadensis from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Europe using the complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (1,608bp) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) (894bp) gene sequences. Polymorphism of the mtDNA loci gave 51 (cox1), 33 (nad1) and 73 (cox1-nad1 concatenated) haplotypes. African and Middle Eastern isolates mainly grouped in a star-like structure around a predominant haplotype, while the European isolates produced more diversified networks. Although the cox1 diagnostic sequence for G6 is frequent in the African/Middle Eastern sub-cluster, and that for G7 is common in the European isolates, numerous intermediate variants prevent a clear distinction into 'G6' or 'G7', and the entire taxon is best treated as a common haplotype cluster G6/7. Meanwhile, the G6/7 cluster is clearly distinct from sequences of wildlife isolates of G8 and G10 ...

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  • Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae isolated in Japanese quails reared in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-19 10:01:07 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae isolated in Japanese quails reared in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017 Oct;49(7):1455-1460 Authors: Omoshaba EO, Olufemi FO, Ojo OE, Sonibare AO, Agbaje M Abstract Salmonellosis is a major bacterial disease causing huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. This study was carried out to determine the period prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica in Japanese quails in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Four hundred cloacal swabs of quail birds were collected from 4 locations within Abeokuta. Salmonella was isolated from the samples using conventional methods for selective isolation of Salmonella and biochemical identification. Isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays for the amplification and detection of Salmonella-associated virulence genes (invA and stn) using specific primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In all, Salmonella was isolated from 14 (3.5%) cloacal swabs. All 14 isolates possessed invA and stn genes. The Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline (100%), doxycycline (100%), ampicillin (100%), sulphamethoxazole (92.9%), nalidixic acid (85.8%), ceftazidime (78.6%), neomycin (64.3%), streptomycin (50%) and gentamycin (28.6%) but all the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobials indicating multidrug resistance. The results concluded that Japanese quails harbour multidrug-resistant Salmonella which could be transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated food or by direct and indirect contact with the carrier birds. Antimicrobial resistance could be due to overdependence on antimicrobials. Ciprofloxacin could be considered in the treatment of zoonotic Salmonellosis in humans. PMID: 28717851 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • An alternative classification to mixture modeling for longitudinal counts or binary measures.

    Posted 2018-05-19 10:01:07 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles An alternative classification to mixture modeling for longitudinal counts or binary measures. Stat Methods Med Res. 2017 Feb;26(1):453-470 Authors: Subtil F, Boussari O, Bastard M, Etard JF, Ecochard R, Génolini C Abstract Classifying patients according to longitudinal measures, or trajectory classification, has become frequent in clinical research. The k-means algorithm is increasingly used for this task in case of continuous variables with standard deviations that do not depend on the mean. One feature of count and binary data modeled by Poisson or logistic regression is that the variance depends on the mean; hence, the within-group variability changes from one group to another depending on the mean trajectory level. Mixture modeling could be used here for classification though its main purpose is to model the data. The results obtained may change according to the main objective. This article presents an extension of the k-means algorithm that takes into account the features of count and binary data by using the deviance as distance metric. This approach is justified by its analogy with the classification likelihood. Two applications are presented with binary and count data to show the differences between the classifications obtained with the usual Euclidean distance versus the deviance distance. PMID: 25179548 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Quantitative assessment of social and economic impact of African swine fever outbreaks in northern Uganda.

    Posted 2018-05-19 10:01:07 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Quantitative assessment of social and economic impact of African swine fever outbreaks in northern Uganda. Prev Vet Med. 2017 Sep 01;144:134-148 Authors: Chenais E, Boqvist S, Emanuelson U, von Brömssen C, Ouma E, Aliro T, Masembe C, Ståhl K, Sternberg-Lewerin S Abstract African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. Animal disease impact is multidimensional and include social and economic impact along the value chain. In low-income settings, this impact keep people poor and push those that have managed to escape poverty back again. If the diseases can be controlled, their negative consequences can be mitigated. However, to successfully argue for investment in disease control, its cost-benefits need to be demonstrated. One part in the cost-benefit equations is disease impact quantification. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the socio-economic impact of ASF outbreaks at household level in northern Uganda. In a longitudinal study, structured interviews with two hundred, randomly selected, pig-keeping households were undertaken three times with a six month interval. Questions related to family and pig herd demographics, pig trade and pig business. Associations between ASF outbreaks and economic and social impact variables were evaluated using linear regression models. The study showed that pigs were kept in extreme low-input-low-output farming systems involving only small monetary investments. Yearly incidence of ASF on household level was 19%. Increasing herd size was positively associated with higher economic output. The interaction between ASF outbreaks and the herd size showed that ASF outbreaks were negatively associated with economic output at the second interview occasion ...

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  • Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF5 gene of PRRSV from central China.

    Posted 2018-05-19 10:01:07 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF5 gene of PRRSV from central China. Res Vet Sci. 2017 Dec;115:226-234 Authors: Zhang L, Feng Y, Martin DP, Chen J, Ma S, Xia P, Zhang G Abstract To more fully understand the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of prevailing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Henan province of China, 112 full-length ORF5 gene sequences, originating from Henan province between 2006 and 2015, were subjected to sequence variation and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Henan isolates belonged to the Type 2 genotype and could be further divided into three subgroups. Subgroup 1 and 2 viruses predominated in Henan and subgroup 2 overtook subgroup 1 as the most prevalent PRRSV between 2006 and 2015. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolates predominated in Henan and eight RespPRRSV MLV vaccine-like isolates were observed in subgroup 3. Sequence variation analysis revealed that the ORF5 genes of all Henan isolates shared >83.3% nucleotide and >80.1% amino acid sequence identity with each other. Primary neutralizing epitope (PNE) analysis revealed that, relative to the attenuated RespPRRSV MLV vaccine isolate, all but one of the subgroup 1 Henan isolates had mutations at amino acid 39 within the key PNE of GP5. Analysis of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in GP5 revealed that all but two of the Henan isolates had a highly conserved sequence between amino acids 77 and 82 positions of GP5. N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) analysis revealed a novel potential NGS at GP5 amino acid position 59 in two of the subgroup 2 Henan isolates. Another novel GP5 amino acid mutation (44N→44D) was found in a single subgroup 1 Henan isolate (HeNan-A9) in a glycosylation site that is known to be crucial for PRRSV infectivity. PMID: 28511131 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • First molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas infesting domestic animals in Tunisia.

    Posted 2018-05-16 10:01:32 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles First molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas infesting domestic animals in Tunisia. Parasit Vectors. 2017 Sep 19;10(1):436 Authors: Zouari S, Khrouf F, M'ghirbi Y, Bouattour A Abstract BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas. RESULTS: A total of 2178 fleas were collected from 5 cats, 27 dogs, 34 sheep, and 41 goats at 22 sites located in Tunisia's five bioclimatic zones. The fleas were identified as: 1803 Ctenocephalides felis (83%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 266 C. canis (12%) and 109 Pulex irritans (5%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Using conventional PCR, we screened the fleas for the presence of Bartonella spp., targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonella DNA was detected in 14% (121/866) of the tested flea pools [estimated infection rate (EIR) per 2 specimens: 0.072, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.060-0.086]. The Bartonella infection rate per pool was broken down as follows: 55% (65/118; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.329, 95% CI: 0.262-0.402) in C. canis; 23.5% (8/34; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.125, 95% CI: 0.055-0.233) in P. irritans and 6.7% (48/714; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.025-0.045) in C. felis. Infection rates, which varied significantly by bioclimatic zone (P < 0.0001), were highest in the humid areas. By sequencing, targeting the gltA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Regions (ITS), we identified three Bartonella zoonotic species: B. ...

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  • Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    Posted 2018-05-16 10:01:32 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Parasit Vectors. 2017 Sep 19;10(1):429 Authors: Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H, Mbogo CM Abstract BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. METHODS: Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). RESULTS: Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations ...

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