بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
2017-04-28 20:26:40 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
Perceptions of disordered eating and associated help seeking in young women.
Eat Disord. 2017 Apr 27;:1-20
Authors: McAndrew AJ, Menna R
Disordered eating is common among young women, but rates of help-seeking are remarkably low. Studies attempting to understand how disordered eating is perceived by young women have exposed participants to fictional vignettes that describe characters exhibiting eating pathologies, and assessed beliefs about the women's issues. These studies have informed our understanding of how young women perceive disordered eating in other women, but do not address the question of how disordered eating is perceived in oneself. In the present study, we randomly assigned 204 young women (ages 18-25 years) to one of two conditions (self or other). In each condition, participants read a hypothetical vignette in which the main character (the participant herself [self] or another female student [other]) exhibited disordered eating, and answered questions about her behavior and her need for help. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations, chi square tests, multiple regression analyses, multinomial logistic regressions, and independent samples t-tests. Overall, results supported the existence of a broad discrepancy in how young women perceive disordered eating in themselves versus in other women. Specifically, relative to women who read the vignette about another individual, women who read the vignette about themselves were more likely to attribute their behavior to a general mental health issue (as opposed to an eating disorder); to believe that they were able to cope with their problem alone; and to believe that they did not need to seek help for their eating behaviors (despite perceiving fewer barriers to doing so). These findings highlight the need for empirical research to consider this self-other discrepancy when using findings to inform the development of ...
Restrictive Eating Disorders and Skeletal Health in Adolescent Girls and Young Women.
Calcif Tissue Int. 2017 May;100(5):449-460
Authors: Thornton D, Gordon CM
This article reviews the effects of restrictive eating disorders on bone health. The relationship between eating disorders and amenorrhea is discussed in detail. The pathologic impact of malnutrition on bone is explored by examining the results of studies using various available imaging techniques. The multiple hormonal alterations seen in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa are reviewed, as well as how these alterations may influence bone turnover, density, structure, and strength. The diagnostic clinical evaluation for adolescents and young women with these disorders is also outlined. Available treatment options, including those that hold promise for efficacy, as well as those we deemed to be ineffective, are considered from both the clinical and mechanistic standpoints. Finally, future research opportunities are offered, including intriguing work in the area of fat and bone interactions.
PMID: 27339670 [PubMed - indexed for ...
Case Study: Impact of Inter- and Intra-Day Energy Parameters on Bone Health, Menstrual Function, and Hormones in an Elite Junior Female Triathlete.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Aug;26(4):363-9
Authors: Vescovi JD, VanHeest JL
This observational case study examined the association of inter- and intraday energy intake and exercise energy expenditure with bone health, menstrual status and hematological factors in a female triathlete. The study spanned 7 months whereby energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were monitored three times (13 d); 16 blood samples were taken, urinary hormones were assessed for 3 months, and bone mineral density was measured twice. Energy availability tended to be sustained below 30 kcal/kg FFM/d and intraday energy intake patterns were often "back-loaded" with approximately 46% of energy consumed after 6 p.m. Most triiodothyronine values were low (1.1-1.2nmol/L) and supportive of reduced energy availability. The athlete had suppressed estradiol (105.1 ± 71.7pmol/L) and progesterone (1.79 ±1.19nmol/L) concentrations as well as urinary sex-steroid metabolites during the entire monitoring period. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone mineral density was low (age-matched Z-score -1.4 to -1.5). Despite these health related maladies the athlete was able to perform typical weekly training loads (swim: 30-40 km, bike: 120-300 km, run 45-70 km) and was competitive as indicated by her continued improvement in ITU World Ranking during and beyond the assessment period. There is a delicate balance between health and performance that can become blurred especially for endurance athletes. Education (athletes, coaches, parents) and continued monitoring of specific indicators will enable evidence-based recommendations to be provided and help reduced the risk of health related issues while maximizing performance gains. Future research needs to longitudinally examine how ...
Psychometric properties of the Mental Health and Social Inadaptation Assessment for Adolescents (MIA) in a population-based sample.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017 Apr 27;:
Authors: Côté SM, Orri M, Brendgen M, Vitaro F, Boivin M, Japel C, Séguin JR, Geoffroy MC, Rouquette A, Falissard B, Tremblay RE
We report on the psychometric properties of the Mental Health and Social Inadaptation Assessment for Adolescents (MIA), a self-report instrument for quantifying the frequency of mental health and psychosocial adaptation problems using a dimensional approach and based on the DSM-5. The instrument includes 113 questions, takes 20-25 minutes to answer, and covers the past 12 months. A population-based cohort of adolescents (n = 1443, age = 15 years; 48% males) rated the frequency at which they experienced symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Depression, Generalized Anxiety, Social Phobia, Eating Disorders (i.e. DSM disorders), Self-harm, Delinquency, Psychopathy as well as social adaptation problems (e.g. aggression). They also rated interference with functioning in four contexts (family, friends, school, daily life). Reliability analyses indicated good to excellent internal consistency for most scales (alpha = 0.70-0.97) except Psychopathy (alpha = 0.46). The hypothesized structure of the instrument showed acceptable fit according to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) [Chi-square (4155) = 9776.2, p = 0.000; Chi-square/DF = 2.35; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.031; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.864], and good convergent and discriminant validity according to multitrait-multimethods analysis. This initial study showed adequate internal validity and reliability of the MIA. Our findings open the way for further studies investigating other validity aspects, which are necessary before recommending ...
2017-04-27 20:27:55 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
[Feeding disorders in infants and toddlers: At-risk situations and predisposing factors].
Arch Pediatr. 2016 Jun;23(6):570-6
Authors: Dubedout S, Cascales T, Mas E, Bion A, Vignes M, Raynaud JP, Olives JP
Feeding disorders and food refusal can be found in 25% of infants, with a minority of them having an organic explanation. Failure to thrive and/or severe malnutrition are found in 3-5% of infants in this population. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors of feeding disorders in infants and children less than 3 years of age. This study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2014 and included 103 children, 57 with feeding and/or eating disorders and 46 healthy children considered to be normal eaters. Parents participated in a structured interview and completed a data sheet to record the mode of delivery, neonatal status, medical history, milk feeding, and medical treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that cesarean delivery, prematurity, neonatal diseases, history of eating disorders in the family, consumption of protein hydrolysates, and treatment with proton pump inhibitors were highly significant risk factors in children with eating disorders. In the present study, we showed that several prenatal and postnatal conditions or interventions were associated with the development of eating disorders in young children. Recommendations for future studies include identifying environmental risk factors and implementing prevention programs focused on family, caregivers, as well as healthcare professionals. The objective is to allow physicians to efficiently sort out the wide variety of conditions, categorize them for therapy, and when necessary refer patients to specialists in the field.
PMID: 27133367 [PubMed - indexed for ...