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  • Self-Disgust within Eating Disordered Groups: Associations with Anxiety, Disgust Sensitivity and Sensory Processing.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:01:15 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Self-Disgust within Eating Disordered Groups: Associations with Anxiety, Disgust Sensitivity and Sensory Processing. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017 Jun 20;: Authors: Bell K, Coulthard H, Wildbur D Abstract This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking. Within the group with anorexia nervosa, self-disgust was associated with low registration and sensation seeking. This report is the first to examine the expression of the emotion self-disgust within eating psychopathology and examine associations of this factor with sensory processing. The emotion self-disgust needs to be further examined to understand its possible role in the onset and maintenance of disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID: 28635077 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons).

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:01:15 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons). Swiss Med Wkly. 2017 Jun 21;147:w14434 Authors: Clénin GE Abstract Iron deficiency is the most widespread and frequent nutritional disorder in the world. It affects a high proportion of children and women in developing countries and is also significantly prevalent in the industrialised world, with a clear predominance in adolescents and menstruating females. Iron is essential for optimal cognitive function and physical performance, not only as a binding site of oxygen but also as a critical constituent of many enzymes. Therefore iron deficiency at all its levels - nonanaemic iron deficiency, iron deficiency with microcytosis or hypochromia and iron deficiency anaemia - should be treated. In the presence of normal stores, however, preventative iron administration is inefficient, has side effects and seems to be harmful. In symptomatic patients with fatigue or in a population at risk for iron deficiency (adolescence, heavy or prolonged menstruation, high performance sport, vegetarian or vegan diet, eating disorder, underweight), a baseline set of blood tests including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and serum ferritin levels are important to monitor iron deficiency. To avoid false negative results (high ferritin levels in spite of iron deficiency), an acute phase reaction should be excluded by history and measurement of C-reactive protein. An algorithm leads through this diagnostic process and the decision making for a possible treatment. For healthy males and females aged >15 years, a ferritin cut-off of 30 µg/l is appropriate. For children from 6-12 years and younger adolescents from 12-15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20 µg/l, respectively, are recommended. As a first step in treatment, counselling and oral iron ...

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  • Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:01:15 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Mar 24;14(1):38 Authors: Lee K, Guy A, Dale J, Wolke D Abstract BACKGROUND: Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. METHOD: A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). RESULTS: Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement ...

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  • Qualitative assessment of pica experienced by frequent blood donors.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:01:15 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Qualitative assessment of pica experienced by frequent blood donors. Transfusion. 2017 Apr;57(4):946-951 Authors: Chansky MC, King MR, Bialkowski W, Bryant BJ, Kiss JE, D'Andrea P, Cable RG, Spencer BR, Mast AE Abstract BACKGROUND: Pica, the compulsive consumption of ice or other nonnutritious substances, is associated with iron deficiency, a common negative consequence of frequent blood donation. Because of this, blood donors, such as those participating in the Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency (STRIDE) study, are an ideal population to explore pica and iron deficiency. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: STRIDE was a 2-year intervention trial to assess the effectiveness of iron supplementation for mitigating iron deficiency in frequent blood donors. Subjects completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires that included questions about pica symptoms. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 14 of these subjects reporting pica symptoms and eight presumed controls (casual ice chewers) to gain a deeper understanding of pica symptoms and their impact on daily life and to make a final determination on the presence of pica. RESULTS: Pica was confirmed in five of the 14 subjects reporting symptoms and in two of eight controls. Outcome misclassification based on the questionnaire was attributed to inadequate assessment of several pica symptoms identified during the interview. Comparison of subjects' repeated quantitative iron measurements taken throughout STRIDE with subjects' final adjudicated pica status revealed a positive relationship between development of pica and worsening iron status; the opposite was found in those whose pica symptoms resolved. CONCLUSION: Continued refinement of pica symptom questions will allow for rapid and accurate detection of pica in frequent blood donors and confirmation of successful treatment with iron supplements. PMID: 28164344 ...

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  • Symptoms of common mental disorders among professional football referees: a one-season prospective study across Europe.

    Posted 2017-06-22 10:01:15 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Symptoms of common mental disorders among professional football referees: a one-season prospective study across Europe. Phys Sportsmed. 2017 Feb;45(1):11-16 Authors: Gouttebarge V, Johnson U, Rochcongar P, Rosier P, Kerkhoffs G Abstract OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and one-season incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among European professional football referees. A secondary aim was to explore the view of European professional football referees on consequences, support and needs related to these symptoms. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among central or assistant professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD (self-reported and not clinically diagnosed), an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by the eight football federations involved. RESULTS: A total of 391 referees (mean age of 33 years old; mean career duration of 7 years) were enrolled, of which 292 completed the follow-up period. Baseline 4-week prevalence rates were 6% for distress, 12% for anxiety/depression, 9% for sleep disturbance, 19% for eating disorders and 17% for adverse alcohol use. The one-season incidence of symptoms of CMD was 10% for distress, 16% for anxiety/depression, 14% for sleep disturbance, 29% for eating disorders and 8% for adverse alcohol use. CONCLUSION: While symptoms of CMD occur among professional football referees and can influence negatively refereeing performances, the development of specific support measures for referees are needed in order to manage properly these symptoms of ...

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