بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
2017-04-28 20:26:31 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
Mechanochemical mechanism of integrin clustering modulated by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017 Apr 14;72:29-37
Authors: Yu J, Huang J, Jansen JA, Xiong C, Walboomers XF
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated. To quantitatively investigate the phenomena and the underlying mechanochemical mechanism of integrin clustering modulated by ligand spacing and substrate stiffness, we introduced Monte Carlo simulations varying the values of ligand spacing and substrate stiffness. Moreover, the effects of integrin number, integrin binding free energy, integrin association free energy, and local ligand spacing were investigated. The simulation results showed that integrin clustering decreased sharply, when ligand spacing was relatively large such as dL>60nm in the current simulations, regardless of substrate rigidities, though with close spacing, the clustering increased with the substrate stiffness. The investigation contributes to the goals of understanding and predicting experimental phenomena, directing and optimizing biomaterial design, and manipulating integrin-dependent cell-substrate adhesion in tissue engineering.
PMID: 28448919 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
MSCs feeder layers induce SMG self-organization and branching morphogenesis.
PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0176453
Authors: Farahat M, Sathi GA, Hara ES, Taketa H, Kuboki T, Matsumoto T
Dysfunction of salivary glands leads to several oral health problems, including dental caries, mastication and swallowing dysfunctions and multiple oral infections. Conventional treatments for such condition fell short of providing satisfying therapeutic results. Recent advances in organ regeneration therapy which utilize tissue stem cells to fabricate bioengineered 3D organ buds, have introduced a promising therapeutic tool for full functional organ regeneration. However, finding a sustainable and easily accessible cell source for such approaches is still challenging, especially in case of severely atrophied tissues such as irradiated salivary glands. In response to this, we hypothesized that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be used as feeder cells to induce salivary epithelial tissues/cells branching. Indeed, in 2D cultures, MSCs supported branching of embryonic submandibular salivary gland (SMG) epithelium. Interestingly, this enhancing effect was dependent on the initial number of MSC feeder cells. In addition, MSCs supported the self-assembly of SMG epithelial progenitor cells into well-patterned and branched 3D salivary organoids. Therefore, these findings propose MSCs as a valuable candidate cell source for induced SMG epithelial branching, which can potentially be applied in future methods for SMG regeneration approaches.
PMID: 28448600 [PubMed - in ...
Mechanical Stress Conditioning and Electrical Stimulation Promote Contractility and Force Maturation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Cardiac Tissue.
Circulation. 2016 Nov 15;134(20):1557-1567
Authors: Ruan JL, Tulloch NL, Razumova MV, Saiget M, Muskheli V, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Regnier M, Murry CE
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering enables the generation of functional human cardiac tissue with cells derived in vitro in combination with biocompatible materials. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes provide a cell source for cardiac tissue engineering; however, their immaturity limits their potential applications. Here we sought to study the effect of mechanical conditioning and electric pacing on the maturation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissues.
METHODS: Cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells were used to generate collagen-based bioengineered human cardiac tissue. Engineered tissue constructs were subjected to different mechanical stress and electric pacing conditions.
RESULTS: The engineered human myocardium exhibits Frank-Starling-type force-length relationships. After 2 weeks of static stress conditioning, the engineered myocardium demonstrated increases in contractility (0.63±0.10 mN/mm(2) vs 0.055±0.009 mN/mm(2) for no stress), tensile stiffness, construct alignment, and cell size. Stress conditioning also increased SERCA2 (Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2) expression, which correlated with a less negative force-frequency relationship. When electric pacing was combined with static stress conditioning, the tissues showed an additional increase in force production (1.34±0.19 mN/mm(2)), with no change in construct alignment or cell size, suggesting maturation of excitation-contraction coupling. Supporting this notion, we found expression of RYR2 (Ryanodine Receptor 2) ...
Bioresorbable Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-HA Materials for Orthopedic Implantation: Enhancing Degradation through Porosity Control.
Adv Healthc Mater. 2017 Apr 27;:
Authors: Heiden M, Nauman E, Stanciu L
Resorbable, porous iron-manganese-hydroxyapatite biocomposites with suitable degradation rates for orthopedic applications are prepared using salt-leaching for the first time. These transient biomaterials have the potential to replace inert, permanent implants that can suffer from long-term complications, or have to be surgically removed, leaving an unfavorable void. Fe30Mn-10HA materials are newly developed to address inadequate resorption rates of degradable materials proposed for orthopedic environments in the past. In this study, controllable porosities with 300 µm diameter pores are introduced into Fe30Mn alloys and Fe30Mn-10HA composites, which enhance tissue ingrowth. For the composites, a Ca2 Mn7 O14 phase generated within the Fe30Mn matrix during the sintering process greatly increases degradability. The combination of this second phase and added porosity is found to contribute to increased bone-like apatite layer formation, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell attachment, and reduction of detrimental oxide layer flaking. Remarkably, after thirty days in vitro, there is a significant increase in degradation up to 0.82 ± 0.04 mm per year for 30 wt% porous Fe30Mn-10HA biocomposites, compared to 0.02 ± 0.00 mm per year for traditional nonporous Fe30Mn, thereby increasing the viability of these materials for future clinical studies.
PMID: 28449254 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
2017-04-27 20:27:35 dun: Mahammad A. Tafida
Advances in Skin Regeneration Using Tissue Engineering.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Apr 07;18(4):
Authors: Vig K, Chaudhari A, Tripathi S, Dixit S, Sahu R, Pillai S, Dennis VA, Singh SR
Tissue engineered skin substitutes for wound healing have evolved tremendously over the last couple of years. New advances have been made toward developing skin substitutes made up of artificial and natural materials. Engineered skin substitutes are developed from acellular materials or can be synthesized from autologous, allograft, xenogenic, or synthetic sources. Each of these engineered skin substitutes has their advantages and disadvantages. However, to this date, a complete functional skin substitute is not available, and research is continuing to develop a competent full thickness skin substitute product that can vascularize rapidly. There is also a need to redesign the currently available substitutes to make them user friendly, commercially affordable, and viable with longer shelf life. The present review focuses on providing an overview of advances in the field of tissue engineered skin substitute development, the availability of various types, and their application.
PMID: 28387714 [PubMed - indexed for ...