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  • Anti-Yo positive and late-onset paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with ovarian carcinoma: A case report.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Anti-Yo positive and late-onset paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with ovarian carcinoma: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(32):e7362 Authors: Cui D, Xu L, Li WY, Qian WD Abstract RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare nonmetastatic neurological complication often associated with ovarian, breast, and other gynecologic cancers. Anti-Yo is one of the antionconeural antibodies found in patients with PCD. It primarily emerges before a malignancy is detected. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe an unusual case involving a patient who exhibited anti-Yo-positive PCD 1 year after being diagnosed with ovarian cancer. DIAGNOSES: Histopathology of the resected tissues and Antineuronal antibody testing. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, 1 g/d) for 1 week and a large-dose of methylprednisolone (0.4 g/kg/d) for 5 days. At the same time, underlying complications were prevented actively, and the peripheral nerves were protected. OUTCOMES: Although most patients with anti-Yo-positive PCD do not improve after treatment, our patient significantly improved after receiving active and effective treatment. PMID: 28796031 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hysterectomy.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hysterectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 06 18;6:CD004637 Authors: Ayeleke RO, Mourad S, Marjoribanks J, Calis KA, Jordan V Abstract BACKGROUND: Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases to November 2016 (including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), as well as clinical trials registers, conference abstracts, and reference lists of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing use of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotics as prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used Cochrane standard methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review 37 RCTs, which performed 20 comparisons of various antibiotics versus placebo and versus one another (6079 women). The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate. The main limitations of study findings were risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods, imprecision due to small samples and low event rates, and inadequate reporting of adverse effects. Any ...

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  • Utilisation of health services and the poor: deconstructing wealth-based differences in facility-based delivery in the Philippines.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Utilisation of health services and the poor: deconstructing wealth-based differences in facility-based delivery in the Philippines. BMC Public Health. 2016 Jul 06;16:523 Authors: Hodge A, Firth S, Bermejo R, Zeck W, Jimenez-Soto E Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite achieving some success, wealth-related disparities in the utilisation of maternal and child health services persist in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to decompose the principal factors driving the wealth-based utilisation gap. METHODS: Using national representative data from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services can be explained by observable factors. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect of differences in measurable characteristics on the wealth-based coverage gap in facility-based delivery. RESULTS: The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was respectively 41.1 % and 74.6 % for poor and non-poor households. Between 67 and 69 % of the wealth-based coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. After controlling for factors characterising the socioeconomic status of the household (i.e. the mothers' and her partners' education and occupation), the birth order of the child was the major factor contributing to the disparity. Mothers' religion and the subjective distance to the health facility were also noteworthy. CONCLUSIONS: This study has found moderate wealth-based disparities in the utilisation of institutional delivery in the Philippines. The results confirm the importance of recent efforts made by the Philippine government to implement equitable, pro-poor focused health programs in the most deprived geographic areas of the country. The importance of addressing the social determinants of health, particularly education, as ...

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  • Evaluation of the performance of Human Papillomavirus testing in paired urine and clinician-collected cervical samples among women aged over 30 years in Bhutan.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Evaluation of the performance of Human Papillomavirus testing in paired urine and clinician-collected cervical samples among women aged over 30 years in Bhutan. Virol J. 2017 Apr 08;14(1):74 Authors: Tshomo U, Franceschi S, Tshokey T, Tobgay T, Baussano I, Tenet V, Snijders PJ, Gheit T, Tommasino M, Vorsters A, Clifford GM Abstract BACKGROUND: Urine sampling may offer a less invasive solution than cervical sampling to test for human papillomavirus (HPV) for HPV vaccine impact monitoring. METHODS: Paired samples of urine and exfoliated cervical cells were obtained for 89 women with history of high-risk (HR) HPV-positive normal cytology in Bhutan. Urine sampling protocol included self-collection of first-void urine immediately into a conservation medium and procedures to optimize DNA yield. Colposcopical abnormalities were biopsied. Two HPV assays were used: a multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) and a less analytically sensitive GP5+/6+ PCR followed by reverse line blot. RESULTS: HPV positivity for 21 types common to both assays was similar in urine and cells by E7-MPG (62.9% and 57.3%, respectively, p = 0.32) but lower in urine by GP5+/6+ (30.3% and 40.4%, p = 0.05). HPV6/11/16/18 positivity did not significantly differ between urine and cells by either assay. Sensitivity of urine (using cells as gold standard) to detect 21 HPV types was 80% and 58% for E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, with specificity 61% and 89%. HPV type distribution in urine and cells was similar, regardless of assay. The 5 detected CIN3+ were HR-HPV positive in cells by both assays, compared to 4 and 3 by E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, in urine samples. CONCLUSION: For the monitoring of vaccine impact, we demonstrate validity of a urine sampling protocol to obtain HPV prevalence data that are broadly comparable to that from cervical cells. However, detection of HPV in urine varies ...

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  • RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection. Virol J. 2017 Mar 09;14(1):50 Authors: Fontecha N, Nieto MC, Andía D, Cisterna R, Basaras M Abstract BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression. METHODS: This study included 50 specimens that had been previously genotyped as HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and/or 45. Cervical swabs were extracted with three different RNA extraction methods -Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux), High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) and RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen)-, and mRNA was detected with NucliSens EasyQ HPV version 1 test (bioMérieux) afterwards. Association of oncogene expression with pathology and lesion progression was analyzed for each extraction method. RESULTS: E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was higher in samples analyzed with bioMérieux (62%), followed by Roche (24%) and Qiagen (6%). Women with lesions and lesion progression showed a higher prevalence of viral RNA expression than women that had not lesions or with lesion persistence. While bioMérieux revealed a higher sensitivity (77.27%), Roche presented a higher PPV (75%) and an increased specificity (89.28%). CONCLUSIONS: Extraction methods based on magnetic beads provided better RNA yield than those based in columns. Both Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux) and High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) ...

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  • Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Accuracy for Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Lugol's Iodine (VILI) Performed by Nurse and Physician.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Accuracy for Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Lugol's Iodine (VILI) Performed by Nurse and Physician. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0170631 Authors: Raifu AO, El-Zein M, Sangwa-Lugoma G, Ramanakumar A, Walter SD, Franco EL, Congo Screening Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) are used to screen women for cervical cancer in low-resource settings. Little is known about correlates of their diagnostic accuracy by healthcare provider. We examined determinants of VIA and VILI screening accuracy by examiner in a cross-sectional screening study of 1528 women aged 30 years or older in a suburb of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a logistic regression model for sensitivity and specificity to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of VIA and VILI, independently performed by nurse and physician, as a function of sociodemographic and reproductive health characteristics. RESULTS: Nurses rated tests as positive more often than physicians (36.3% vs 30.2% for VIA, 26.2% vs 25.2% for VILI). Women's age was the most important determinant of performance. It was inversely associated with sensitivity (nurse's VIA: p<0.001, nurse's VILI: p = 0.018, physician's VIA: p = 0.005, physician's VILI: p = 0.006) but positively associated with specificity (all four combinations: p<0.001). Increasing parity adversely affected sensitivity and specificity, but the effects on sensitivity were significant for nurses only. The screening performance of physician's assessment was significantly better than the nurse's (difference in sensitivity: VIA = 13%, VILI = 16%; difference in specificity: VIA = 6%, VILI = 1%). CONCLUSIONS: Age and parity influence the performance of visual tests for cervical cancer screening. Proper training of local healthcare providers in the conduct of ...

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  • An intergenic risk locus containing an enhancer deletion in 2q35 modulates breast cancer risk by deregulating IGFBP5 expression.

    Posted 2017-08-24 10:00:36 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles An intergenic risk locus containing an enhancer deletion in 2q35 modulates breast cancer risk by deregulating IGFBP5 expression. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Sep 01;25(17):3863-3876 Authors: Wyszynski A, Hong CC, Lam K, Michailidou K, Lytle C, Yao S, Zhang Y, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Dennis J, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Schmidt MK, Broeks A, Muir K, Lophatananon A, Fasching PA, Beckmann MW, Peto J, Dos-Santos-Silva I, Sawyer EJ, Tomlinson I, Burwinkel B, Marme F, Guénel P, Truong T, Bojesen SE, Nordestgaard BG, González-Neira A, Benitez J, Neuhausen SL, Brenner H, Dieffenbach AK, Meindl A, Schmutzler RK, Brauch H, GENICA Network, Nevanlinna H, Khan S, Matsuo K, Ito H, Dörk T, Bogdanova NV, Lindblom A, Margolin S, Mannermaa A, Kosma VM, kConFab Investigators, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, Wu AH, Van Den Berg D, Lambrechts D, Wildiers H, Chang-Claude J, Rudolph A, Radice P, Peterlongo P, Couch FJ, Olson JE, Giles GG, Milne RL, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Dumont M, Teo SH, Wong TY, Kristensen V, Zheng W, Long J, Winqvist R, Pylkäs K, Andrulis IL, Knight JA, Devilee P, Seynaeve C, García-Closas M, Figueroa J, Klevebring D, Czene K, Hooning MJ, van den Ouweland AM, Darabi H, Shu XO, Gao YT, Cox A, Blot W, Signorello LB, Shah M, Kang D, Choi JY, Hartman M, Miao H, Hamann U, Jakubowska A, Lubinski J, Sangrajrang S, McKay J, Toland AE, Yannoukakos D, Shen CY, Wu PE, Swerdlow A, Orr N, Simard J, Pharoah PD, Dunning AM, Chenevix-Trench G, Hall P, Bandera E, Amos C, Ambrosone C, Easton DF, Cole MD Abstract Breast cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in females. Previous association studies have identified variants on 2q35 associated with the risk of breast cancer. To identify functional susceptibility loci for breast cancer, we interrogated the 2q35 gene desert for chromatin architecture and functional variation correlated with gene expression. We report a novel ...

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