Chlamydial infection may result in pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia screening is recommended in sexually active women younger than 25 years of age and other women at increased risk and can be performed on vaginal swabs or urine samples.

Disclosure forms provided by the author are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Dr. Wiesenfeld reports receiving research laboratory supplies from Hologic. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Source Information

From the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program, Allegheny County Health Department — both in Pittsburgh.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Wiesenfeld at the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee–Womens Hospital of UPMC, 300 Halket St., Suite 2333, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, or at .